When Hillary Clinton was elected to the U.S. Senate in 2001, she became the first American very first lady to win a windy office seat. In 2016, she became the very first woman in U.S. Background to end up being the presidential nominee the a significant political party.

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Who Is Hillary Clinton?

Hillary Clinton was born in Chicago and also went on to earn her law level from Yale University. She married fellow law school graduate Bill Clinton in 1975. She later served as very first lady from 1993 come 2001, and then together a U.S. Senator from 2001 to 2009. In at an early stage 2007, Clinton announced she plans to run for the presidency. Throughout the 2008 democratic primaries, she conceded the nomination when it became noticeable that Barack Obama organized a majority of the delegate vote. After ~ winning the national election, Obama appointed Clinton secretary the state. She was sworn in as component of his room in January 2009 and also served till 2013. In the feather of 2015, she announced she plans to operation again for the U.S. Presidency. In 2016, she became the an initial woman in U.S. Background to become the presidential nominee that a major political party. ~ a polarizing campaign versus GOP candidate Donald Trump, Clinton was defeated in the basic election the November.

Early Life

Hillary to be born Hillary Diane Rodham on October 26, 1947, in Chicago, Illinois. She was elevated in Park Ridge, Illinois, a picturesque suburb located 15 miles northwest of downtown Chicago.

Hillary to be the eldest daughter of Hugh Rodham, a prosperous towel store owner, and also Dorothy Emma Howell Rodham; she has two younger brothers, Hugh Jr. (born in 1950) and Anthony (born in 1954).

As a young woman, Hillary was active in young Republican groups and also campaigned for Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater in 1964. She was motivated to occupational in public organization after listening a speech in Chicago through the Reverend young name Luther King Jr., and also became a Democrat in 1968.

Education and also Early Career

Hillary attend Wellesley College, whereby she was energetic in student politics and also elected senior class president before graduating in 1969. She climate attended Yale legislation School, whereby she met bill Clinton. Graduating with honors in 1973, she go on come enroll at Yale boy Study Center, wherein she took courses on children and medicine and completed one post-graduate year that study.

Hillary operated at assorted jobs throughout her summers together a college student. In 1971, she an initial came to Washington, D.C. To job-related on U.S. City council Walter Mondale's sub-committee ~ above migrant workers. In the summer the 1972, she worked in the western claims for the project of autonomous presidential nominee George McGovern.

In the feather of 1974, Hillary ended up being a member of the presidential impeachment inquiry staff, advising the Judiciary Committee of the residence of Representatives during the Watergate Scandal. 

After chairman Richard M. Nixon resigned in August, she came to be a faculty member of the university of Arkansas law School in Fayetteville, where her Yale regulation School classmate and also boyfriend invoice was teaching together well.

Marriage to invoice Clinton

Hillary married bill on October 11, 1975, at their residence in Fayetteville. Before he suggest marriage, Bill had actually secretly purchase a small house that she had remarked the she liked. As soon as he proposed marriage to her and she accepted, that revealed that they own the house. Your daughter, Chelsea Victoria, was born ~ above February 27, 1980. 

In 1976, Clinton functioned on Jimmy Carter's successful campaign for president her husband Clinton was chosen attorney general. Bill was elected governor in 1978 at age 32, shed reelection in 1980, but came back to win in 1982, 1984, 1986 (when the ax of office was increased from two to 4 years) and also 1990.

Clinton joined the Rose legislation Firm in small Rock and, in 1977, was appointed come part-time chairman of the Legal solutions Corporation by chairman Carter. As very first lady of the state for a dozen years (1979-1981, 1983-1992), she chaired the Arkansas Educational criter Committee, co-founded the Arkansas proponents for Children and Families, and also served top top the plank of the Arkansas Children's Hospital, Arkansas legit Services and also the Children's Defense Fund. She also served ~ above the boards of TCBY and Wal-Mart.

In 1988 and also 1991, The National regulation Journal named her one of the 100 most an effective lawyers in America.


First Lady

During her husband's 1992 presidential campaign, Clinton emerged together a dynamic and valued partner of she husband, and also as president, he called her to head the Task force on National health Reform (1993). The controversial commission developed a complicated plan i beg your pardon never involved the floor of one of two people house. That was abandoned in September 1994.

During this period, she and her husband invest in the Whitewater genuine estate project. The project's bank, Morgan Guaranty Savings and also Loan, failed, costing the federal federal government $73 million. Whitewater later ended up being the subject of congressional hearings and an elevation counsel investigation.

In 1998, the White home was engulfed in the Monica Lewinsky sex scandal. Despite she publicly supported her husband, Hillary reportedly thought about leaving her marriage. He to be impeached, however the U.S. Senate failed to convict and he remained in office.

Senate Win and also Presidential Run

In 1999, Clinton decided she would look for the U.S. Senate chair from brand-new York held by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, that was retiring after 4 terms. In spite of early problems and also charges of carpetbagging, Clinton beat well-known Republican stack Lazio by a surprisingly broad margin: 55 percent come 43 percent. Clinton became the an initial wife of a president to seek and win public office and the first woman to be chosen to the U.S. Senate from brand-new York. She easily won reelection in November 2006.

In early 2007, Clinton announced she plans to effort for another first—to it is in the first female president. Throughout the 2008 democratic primaries, councilor Clinton conceded the nomination as soon as it became apparent that nominee Barack Obama held a majority of the delegate vote. When Clinton suspended her campaign, she made a speech to she supporters. "Although us were not able come shatter that highest and hardest glass ceiling this time, thanks to you it has 18 million cracks in it," she said, "and the irradiate is shining with like never ever before, filling us all through the hope and the sure knowledge that the route will be a tiny easier next time, and also we room going to keep working to do it so, today store with me and also stand for me, we still have so lot to carry out together, us made history, and also lets make part more."

U.S. Secretary the State

Shortly ~ winning the U.S. Presidential election, Obama nominated Clinton as secretary that state. She embraced the nomination and also was officially approved together the 67th U.S. Secretary the state by the Senate top top January 21, 2009.

During her term, Clinton used her position to make women's rights and human legal rights a main talking suggest of U.S. Initiatives. She became one of the many traveled secretaries of state in American history, and advocated the usage of social media come convey the country's positions. She also led U.S. Diplomatic efforts in connection to the Arab Spring and also military treatment in Libya.

The State Department, under Clinton's leadership, came under investigation after a deadly attack on a U.S. Diplomatic write-up in Benghazi, Libya, killed U.S. Ambassador Christopher Stevens and also three others on September 11, 2012. An independent dashboard issued a report about the Benghazi attack, which found "systematic failures and leadership and management deficiencies" at the State Department.

Health Issues

Clinton, who said she took obligation for protection at the station in Benghazi, was reserved to testify about the attack before conference in December 2012. She canceled her booked testimony, however, citing a stomach virus and, later, a concussion the she experienced after fainting (the cause of i beg your pardon was later reported together dehydration). Some members of Congress wondered about the timing of she illnesses, including Representative Allen West, who proclaimed that he believed the secretary of state was experiencing from "a situation of Benghazi flu" on the day she was scheduled to testify.

On December 30, 2012, Clinton was hospitalized through a blood clot related to the concussion that she had actually suffered earlier in the month. She to be released indigenous a new York hospital on January 2, 2013, after ~ receiving treatment, and soon recovered and returned to work.

Benghazi Testimony and Resignation

Clinton testified about the Benghazi attack on January 23, 2013. Speak to members the the House foreign Relations Committee, she protected her actions if taking full responsibility for the incident, i m sorry killed 4 American citizens. "As I have actually said plenty of times since September 11, ns take responsibility, and nobody is more committed to gaining this right," she told the House. She added, "I am identified to leaving the State Department and also our nation safer, stronger and more secure."

After acquisition office in 2009, she repeatedly stated that she was only interested in serving one term together secretary the state. She stepped down from her short article on February 1, 2013.

In might 2014, the House choose Committee top top Benghazi, chaired through Representative Trey Gowdy from south Carolina, was produced to investigate the Benghazi attack. Clinton testified in former of the committee on October 22, 2015, in a nearly 11-hour hearing. The House select Committee ~ above Benghazi approve its last report top top June 28, 2016. The simply over 800-page report found no brand-new evidence of wrongdoing on her part, yet was an essential of "government agencies favor the Defense Department, the main Intelligence firm and the State department — and the officials that led lock — because that failing to master the acute security risks in the Libyan city, and especially for maintaining outposts in Benghazi that they can not protect," according to The new York Times.

The democrats on the committee approve their own 339-page minority report that criticized Republicans because that "one the the longest and most partisan conference investigations in history" the took two years come complete and cost "$7 million in taxpayer funds." 

"We have been hampered in our work-related by the recurring Republican obsession v conspiracy theory that have no basis in reality," the minority report stated. "Rather than refuse these conspiracy theory in the absence of evidence — or in the confront of tough facts — select Committee Republicans adopted them and also turned them into a political crusade."

Mother-in-Law and Grandmother

In 2010, the Clintons' daughter Chelsea married previous Goldman Sachs invest banker and current hedge fund manager Marc Mezvinksy.

On September 26, 2014, Clinton came to be a first-time grandmother when daughter Chelsea offered birth to Charlotte Clinton Mezvinsky. Chelsea provided birth come her second child, Aidan Clinton Mezvinsky, on June 18, 2016, and also to child Jasper Clinton Mezvinsky top top July 22, 2019.

Bid because that 2016 Presidency

After lot speculation and assumptions end whether she would run because that the U.S. Presidency, Clinton's plans to be made main in the feather of 2015. Top top April 12, her project chairperson man D. Podesta announced via email that the previous secretary that state was entering the gyeongju to certain the democratic presidential nomination for the 2016 elections. This was instantly followed by an online campaign clip, with Clinton herself announcing the she was to run for president.

Campaign Issues

On her project site, Clinton addressed a wide variety of issues: lowering student debt, criminal justice reform, campaign finance reform, improving the health care coverage and also costs that the Affordable treatment Act (a.k.a. Obamacare), and women's rights. 

However, the candidate was also known for her changing stances on assorted hot switch issues, consisting of her evolving assistance of happy marriage and also her souring on the Trans Pacific Partnership. In regard come the environment, Clinton had a plan to combat climate change but likewise faced inquiries from environmental activists for supporting fracking. She likewise supported the fatality penalty however claimed it must be enforced in exceptional cases.

Email Scandal

In early March 2015, Clinton confronted controversy and also criticism as soon as it was revealed that she had used her an individual email resolve to manage official governmental service during she time together secretary the state. In a news conference organized at the united Nations, speaking originally on sex equality and the political instance in Iran, Clinton stated that she had actually utilized her personal email because that convenience as permitted by state department protocol. She later on turned over all governmental correspondence to the Obama administration while deleting messages that could be interpreted as personal. 

In might 2016, the State room issued a statement about Clinton's ongoing email scandal. The room criticized she for not seeking permission to usage a exclusive email server and additionally stated it would certainly not have approved that if she had. The 79-page report, along with a different FBI investigation and other legal matters that associated her personal email account, exacerbated Clinton's controversial political reputation and became fodder for Republican officials.

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After a year-long FBI investigation of Clinton’s email practices while she to be secretary of state, FBI manager James Comey announced top top July 5, 2016, that the agency would no recommend criminal charges versus Clinton. “Our judgment is that no reasonable prosecutor would lug such a case,” Comey stated at a news conference. The added: ”Although we did not find clear proof that Secretary Clinton or her colleagues intended come violate regulations governing the dealing with of the classified information, over there is evidence that lock were incredibly careless in their taking care of of really sensitive, highly classified information."

The adhering to day Attorney general Loretta Lynch exit a explain saying that she would certainly accept the FBI’s recommendation and Clinton would certainly not be fee in the case. “Late this afternoon, ns met through FBI manager James Comey and career prosecutors and agents who conducted the examination of Secretary Hillary Clinton’s use of a personal email system during her time as Secretary of State,” Lynch created in the statement. “I received and also accepted their unanimous referral that the thorough, year-long examination be closed and that no charges it is in brought against any people within the scope of the investigation.”

Clinton’s email troubles resurfaced ~ above October 28, 2016, when Comey revealed in a letter to Congress that while investigating disgraced former Congressman Anthony Weiner for texts he had actually sent come a 15-year-old girl, regulation enforcement officials had discovered emails that showed up “to it is in pertinent” come the closed examination of Clinton’s usage of a an individual email server. The emails were apparently sent by Huma Abedin, Weiner’s wife and Clinton’s peak aide, come Clinton’s an individual server, however the content of the emails was unknown.

The time of Comey’s letter, simply 11 days before the election, to be unprecedented and critics called for the FBI come release an ext information. A bipartisan group of practically one hundred former federal prosecutors and also Justice department officials also signed a letter criticizing Comey. “We cannot recall a prior circumstances where a senior Justice Department official — Republican or Democrat — has, top top the night of a major election, issued a public statement whereby the mere disclosure of details may influence the election’s outcome, however the official acknowledges the details to it is in examined might not be significant or new,” the letter stated.