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Hatshepsut was a woman king that Egypt (reigned in her own right c. 1473–58 BCE) who attained extraordinary power for a woman, adopting the complete titles and regalia the a pharaoh.

Hatshepsut married her half brother, Thutmose II, who inherited the throne from their father, Thutmose I, and made Hatshepsut his consort. Once Thutmose II died, Hatshepsut ended up being regent for she stepson, Thutmose III, and eventually the two came to be corulers the Egypt. Hatshepsut was the leading king. In representations, she wears traditional regalia.

Hatshepsut’s reign was essentially a tranquil one, and her international policy was based on trade quite than war. Restoration and also building were important royal duties, and also she embarked on extensive structure programs, namely on the temples of the national god Amon-Re; the Karnak holy place complex; and the Dayr al-Baḥrī temple, a funerary monument because that herself.

Hatshepsut to be born to Thutmose I and his consort Ahmose. She married her fifty percent brother, Thutmose II, and also had a daughter, Neferure. Once Thutmose II inherited the throne, Hatshepsut became his consort. The throne later on passed to his son, Thutmose III, born to a lesser harem queen. Hatshepsut acted as regent and also then coruler.

The reason of Hatshepsut"s fatality is not known. Her mummy was absent from the sarcophagus when her dig was excavated in the 1920s. Over there are numerous theories around her demise, including that she either endured from cancer or was murdered, possibly by she stepson. No theory has actually been proved, nor has actually her body been conclusively identified.

Hatshepsut, also spelled Hatchepsut, mrs king of Egypt (reigned in her own right c. 1473–58 bce) who attained unmatched power because that a woman, adopting the complete titles and also regalia that a pharaoh.


Seated limestone statue of Hatshepsut, c. 1479–58 bce; in the metropolitan Museum that Art, brand-new York City.

Hatshepsut, the elder daughter the the 18th-dynasty king Thutmose I and also his consort Ahmose, was married come her fifty percent brother Thutmose II, kid of the lady Mutnofret. Because three that Mutnofret’s older young had passed away prematurely, Thutmose II inherited his father’s throne around 1492 bce, through Hatshepsut as his consort. Hatshepsut bore one daughter, Neferure, however no son. Once her husband died about 1479 bce, the throne passed come his son Thutmose III, born to Isis, a lesser harem queen. Together Thutmose III was an infant, Hatshepsut acted together regent because that the young king.

For the first few years of she stepson’s reign, Hatshepsut to be an entirely conventional regent. But, through the finish of his saturday regnal year, she had actually been crowned king and embraced a full royal titulary (the imperial protocol embraced by Egyptian sovereigns). Hatshepsut and also Thutmose III were currently corulers of Egypt, with Hatshepsut an extremely much the dominant king. Hitherto Hatshepsut had been shown as a typical queen, with a female body and as necessary feminine garments. However now, after ~ a brief duration of testing that affiliated combining a female body v kingly (male) regalia, she formal portraits started to display Hatshepsut with a male body, put on the classic regalia of kilt, crown or head-cloth, and false beard. Come dismiss this together a serious attempt to happen herself off as a male is to misunderstand Egyptian imaginative convention, which confirmed things no as lock were however as they should be. In resulting in herself to be portrayed as a traditional king, Hatshepsut ensured that this is what she would certainly become.

Hatshepsut never defined why she take it the throne or exactly how she encouraged Egypt’s upstream to accept her new position. However, crucial element of her success was a team of faithful officials, countless handpicked, who regulated all the vital positions in her government. Many prominent amongst these to be Senenmut, overseer that all imperial works and also tutor to Neferure. Some observers have said that Hatshepsut and also Senenmut may have actually been lovers, however there is no proof to support this claim.

Traditionally, Egyptian kings protected their land versus the enemies who lurked at Egypt’s borders. Hatshepsut’s regime was essentially a relaxed one, and also her foreign policy was based on trade rather than war. Yet scenes top top the walls of her Dayr al-Baḥrī temple, in west Thebes, suggest that she started with a short, successful military project in Nubia. More-complete scenes display Hatshepsut’s seaborne trading expedition to Punt, a trading centre (since vanished) on the eastern African coast beyond the southernmost finish of the Red Sea. Gold, ebony, pet skins, baboons, processed myrrh, and also living incense trees were brought ago to Egypt, and the trees to be planted in the gardens of Dayr al-Baḥrī.

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Restoration and building were important royal duties. Hatshepsut claimed, falsely, to have revitalized the damages wrought by the Hyksos (Asian) kings throughout their dominance in Egypt. She undertook substantial building program. In Thebes this focused on the temples of her magnificent father, the national god Amon-Re (see Amon). In ~ the Karnak holy place complex, she remodeled she earthly father’s hypostyle hall, added a barque shrine (the Red Chapel), and introduced two pairs the obelisks. At Beni Hasan in center Egypt, she developed a rock-cut temple well-known in Greek as Speos Artemidos. She supreme achievement was she Dayr al-Baḥrī temple; designed as a funerary monument because that Hatshepsut, that was specialized to Amon-Re and included a collection of chapels devoted to Osiris, Re, Hathor, Anubis, and also the royal ancestors. Hatshepsut was to be interred in the valley of the Kings, wherein she prolonged her father’s tomb so that the two can lie together.