The Ecuadorian Amazon is a region of South-America whereby fruit cultivation is rather undeveloped. Nevertheless replanting fruit trees which enables production, transformation, marketing and also fruit intake is both a sustainable development method and a weapon to tackle deforestation. priziv.org understands the well therefore we incorporate fruit tree in almost all agroforestry projects we run.
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#1 Why reforesting through fruit trees
rich soils and a cool climate make the township the Tena a perfect ar to prosper tropical fruit species together illustrates the flourishing cocoa culture, taken into consideration as one of the ideal in the world. Fruits deserve to be made use of for family usage or they can be offered locally, nationally and also internationally. The geographical location that Tena is amazing for the sale of fruits and other processed products on two different markets. Nationally, since of the brand-new roads connecting Amazonia to number of cities the the Sierra (Andean Mountains) but additionally internationally with the recent building and construction of Tena Airport. fruits play a very important nutritional function in a region where diet is based upon cassava and also plantain banana. A wide range of fruits harvested every year lengthy would drastically improve the physical and also mental development of children. Tropical fruits marketed on local sector usually come from seaside regions. Selling them through brief channels would limit the number of intermediaries and reduce freight prices thus ensuring better margins for regional farmers. Cultivating 25 different fruit tree species permits to care around biodiversity. It additionally decrease the spread out of bacter diseases and also mushrooms that regularly arises in monocultures thus staying clear of the use of pesticides. Cultivating several different types reduces the results of a potential price autumn such together what taken place in the 90’s as soon as the price that coffee collapsed. It could happen later on for cocoa which is the main cash crop. Cultivation operations, pruning and also harvesting are dispersed throughout the year in bespeak to prevent as lot as feasible periods that inactivity and periods of intense labor. Part kinds of fruit trees get in the manufacturing phase only 2 year after being planted. Lots of fruitsgrowing under the same weather problems do no exist in Ecuador. Introducing some that those exotic species combined with underexploited local species, a sound understanding of tree grafting, pruning and also varieties an option would surely lead the farmer to profit. There are a many derivatives assets from fruit : juices, pulps, ice creams, jams, essential oils, floral extracts, dry fruits, etc… this derivatives enable an interesting economic valuation of fruits and also a reduction of freight and storage costs.
#2 Which types to cultivate
Obviously, replanting fruit trees requires the development of a considerable seed bank. Few of the seed come indigenous a couple of farms which usage to cultivate fruit trees and are situated both in the Amazon and also in the coastal regions. The seeds of regional fruit tree varieties are bought in ~ the sector in Tena city. We additionally collaborate v the INIAP (Instituto Nacional de Investigacion AgroPecuaria) i m sorry is the Ecuadorian Agronomic research study Center. This company sells united state a an excellent variety that fruit seeds, selected for their an especially interesting taste and their solid production capacity. The rest is bought come an American, Jim WEST, who has actually imported fruit species from all about the world. He has been owning a farm in the seaside region because that 25 years. Exotic fruit fit with climat comparable to what we can discover in Tena and very few phytosanitary troubles have been detected till now. We now have actually at our handle hundreds of various kind of seeds. We managed to taste at the very least once every one of the fruit types we got. We also observed trees architecture, determined the optimal conditions for their development (sun exposure, humidity, soil composition, etc…) in order to discover them a location in our agroforestry systems. Since half of fruit varieties we gained are greatly unknown in the Tena region, we use to carry fruit samples as soon as visiting local farmers to let them recognize what castle are about to cultivate. It permitted us to obtain an idea of their taste quality on a large population. ~ something like 12 month we ultimately selected 25 fruit species. The 25 different species: The most popular fruits of the Amazon container : sapote, Soursop, cherimoya, chicle muyu, mulchi, Arazá, guayabilla, copoaçu, water apple, almond-tree, borojó, jabuticaba, madruna. Asian and also African fruits : salak, mangosteen, ramboutan, jackfruit, menteng, rambai. Fruits from the Ecuadorian coastal region : plum mango, coconut. Citrus : oranges, mandarins, lemons, grapefruits. Please note that every citrus space grafted. The number of plants grew for each varieties depends top top : the financial interest, taste and also nutritional qualities, dissemination, adaptation. Even if we current our point of view around the advantage of each species, even if we allude out the prominence of biodiversity, the farmer still remain the ones who very own the lands. The bulk of them complies with our advices and also focuses on planting because that self-consumption. Later, with time, they will be able to identify which types are finest for advertisement purpose. Through the means all the farmers are very interested in grafted citrus.
#3 Seed collection and society in nursery
Collected fruit seeds space sowed within the different tree nurseries. The precise number of sowed seed is calculated follow to : the amount of plants needed by the farmers, the germination rate and also the mortality price in nursery. For types producing a huge quantity the seeds and also whose fruits have not to be harvested, that is quite easy to collection young shoots right at the foot that the mother tree. It likewise save the time required for seeds to end up being young shoots. It’s feasible to carry those young shoots in ~ moistened newspaper but one has to transplant them one day after in ~ the latest. Please keep in mind that we thrive the fruit tree types in the exact same nursery than the hardwood tree types but we location them top top the many sunny plots because fruit trees are heliophilous. When the plants have reached 50 to 80 centimeter we distribution them to the farmers. The time between gathering seeds and also obtaining plants all set for final transplantation is about 1 year.
|Camu camu||Myrciaria dubia||2||180||70||80||45||320|
|Chicle muyu||Lacmella sp.||2||180||50||80||25||450|
|Graft lemon||Citrus sp.||3||270||70||80||20||480|
|Graft grapefruit||Citrus sp.||5||450||70||80||20||805|
|Graft mandarin||Citrus reticulata||8||720||70||80||20||1290|
|Water apple||Syzygium aqueum||3||270||70||80||30||115|
|Graft orange||Citrus sp.||8||720||70||80||20||1290|
|Graft Sapote||Matisia cordata||6||540||0.5||0.9||25||1200|
#4 Fruit tree grafting
Grafting is the most frequently used technique in the culture of fruit trees. However it is not feasible for each species. We use it for all type of citrus (orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon) and also for sapote. The procedure is quite complex so we got a training performed through a technician native Shushufindi city. Depending on types there space several different grafting methods. Because that citrus and sapote just one grafting an approach is used, the top break-up graft. It functions in about 90% that cases. For a well-trained human being it is feasible to graft approximately 200 tree a day. The benefits of grafting: Citrus grafting help to get really high high quality trees. The lower part of the tree, referred to as the rootstock, will certainly develop solid and healthy roots. The rootstock originates from a local lemon varieties which specifically fits the surrounding conditions, both resistant come parasites and also mushrooms. The top component of the tree, obtained from the graft, will be the specific copy the the tree native which it has actually been taken. That will current the exact same properties : resistant come diseases, small-sized to facilitate harvesting, great production potential, huge and tasty fruits. For grafted citrus, fruit production starts 4 years after planting because grafts have the very same cellular qualities as the equivalent full-grown trees. Because that sapote the forced amount of time before the first harvest clocks backward from 10 to 4 years. Full-grown tree are about 6 meters high rather of 20. This two determinants make possible the culture of sapote which offered to be a very complicated task.
#5 just how to plant fruit trees
once the young trees room in possession that the farmers, lock are totally free to plant them together they wish. During the distribution of the tree we usage to existing the various agroforestry systems us recommend. We pick the proper system(s) according to the specificities of each farm. In all cases we strongly recommend to alternative different kinds of fruit trees to avoid diseases and optimize space. A Shrub and a tree are most likely to complete each other in a reasonable way, both at the canopy and also the root mechanism level. The different systems we propose: random planting in ~ a totally reforested farm. some farmers have got small farms (less than 5 hectares) and also don’t have plots huge enough come sow. The will plant where there is quiet some an are available. Planting ~ above cocoa plots to replace dead cocoa plants. Fruit trees space planted alternately with cocoas whereby there is some free place available. In most instances farmers have actually fallow lands. They shall use those lands to plant fruit trees combined with quick cycle species. That method they can obtain incomes quickly thanks and also forcing them to take good care of your lands. The different plantation solution on fallow lands are: Planting top top fallow lands without combining different species. If the farmers are involved in others professional tasks then castle won’t have time to reforest with brief cycle species. Totally clearing the plots before reforesting is not recommended due to the fact that if there isn’t any type of vegetation cover during the an initial year a lot of young trees will die. If weeding the plots, the farmers must keep a adequate tree sheathe to carry out a lightly shaded environment. Planting in association v cassava. Roughly one month prior to planting fruit trees, the farmers must weed your plots and plant cassava. As quickly as the vegetation covering is adequate they can start planting young fruit trees. This method presents the best results in regards to plant survival because cassava farming forces the farmers to save a weed-free land. Additionally that way the shade provided is optimum and also fallen cassava leaves room a natural fertilizer. Cassava have the right to be harvest after 9 months. Then the farmers will be able to plant cassava once more. Planting in association v plantain banana. One anticipation of three months is necessary because plantain banana grows slower. Banana trees space planted every 2 meters. Once they room tall enough it is possible to tree the other fruit tree at least at one meter from them. After one year one the banana bunch is harvested and the tree dies. This technique is interesting since it is not necessary plant banana trees again. Indeed, young banana shooting come out at the foot of the mom tree come. Planting in association v corn sowed with a pole (unlike the classic broadcast sowing). A feet is dug every 60 cm v a wooden stick and 2 seeds are sowed right into it. ~ one month corn is high enough and also it becomes possible to tree fruit trees. Corn is harvested after 6 months and it becomes necessary to plant cassava or plantain banana instead. Linear plan plantation through grafted cocoas. Cocoa cultivation is very common in this region of Ecuador. Grafted cocoa plants are provided by the government and several various associative structures. The farmers normally cultivate cocoa top top a monoculture basis. Yet there are various other possibilities together planting cocoa alternately through fruit trees: one line of cocoa, one line of fruit trees. It help reducing cocoa concentration which leader to substantial use of chemical assets in a an ar where farming is still mainly organic. Furthermore some fruit tree will help providing light the shade over cocoas and also organic material such as fallen leaves. The deep root of these kind of trees are additionally helpful due to the fact that it bring up crucial nutrients close come the surface. Planting in a pasture. If the farmers desire to transform their pastures into agricultural lands climate they may take into consideration planting fruit trees. This is the most daunting model because the plant will get complete sun exposure and having a tough time contending with pasture weeds such together Dalis throughout the first two years. A cuttings offering shade is strongly recommended.
#6 Teaching native populations
Teaching farmers starts by presenting them every the fruit we’ve introduced over in order come let lock taste fruit species they don’t know. We additionally teach them exactly how to cook those fruits. A publication of recipes is walking to it is in released shortly to attain this purpose.
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Training continues during collective works in ~ the tree nursery of our teaching farm and also during reforestation actions. We likewise organize training process to teach grafting techniques and how to perform suitable tree pruning. Once the trees are distributed among farmers we also give lock a useful guide. This guide consists of the essential informations to achieve proper growing for every fruit species. Tree size, how plenty of years prior to the very first fruit production, plantation distance, plantation plan depending of the favored agroforestry system, carry precautions, etc… Please inspect out this overview we wrote in Spanish language (intended for regional people) referred to as « Guia practica para el cultivo de frutales ».