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Dionysus speak panther, Greek mosaic from Pella C4th B.C., Pella archaeological Museum

DIONYSOS (Dionysus) was the Olympian god the wine, vegetation, pleasure, festivity, madness and also wild frenzy. He was depicted as one of two people an older, mustache god or one effeminate, long-haired youth. His attributes included the thyrsos (a pine-cone tipped staff), a drinking cup and a crown of ivy. The was usually accompanied by a troop of Satyrs and Mainades (wild woman devotees).

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MYTHS

Dionysos to be a son of Zeus and also the princess Semele of Thebes. During the course of her pregnancy, the god"s jealous mam Hera tricked Semele right into asking Zeus to appear before she in his complete glory. Bound by oath, the god was compelled to comply and she to be consumed through the warmth of his lightning-bolts. Zeus recovered your unborn child from her body, sewed him up in his very own thigh, and also carried him come term. More>>

After his birth from the thigh that Zeus, Dionysos was very first entrusted to the care of Seilenos (Silenus) and the nymphs of mount Nysa, and also later to his aunt Ino, Semele"s sister, and her husband Athamas. Hera was enraged as soon as she learned of the boy"s location and drove the pair mad, bring about them to death both your children and themselves. More>>

The Thrakian king Lykourgos (Lycurgus) struck Dionysos and also his companions as they to be travelling v his land and drove them right into the sea. Together punishment, the god inflicted him v madness leading to him to killing his wife and also son and also mutilate himself through an axe. More>>

King Pentheus of Thebes refuse to accept the god"s divinity and tried to apprehend him. The god retaliated by driving the king"s daughters right into a crazed frenzy and also they tore that apart body from limb. More>>

Dionysos instructed the hero Ikarios (Icarius) that Athens in the arts of winemaking. However, some shepherds, upon drink the wine, thought they had actually been poisoned and killed him. The sorrowful god then collection him among the stars as the constellation Bootes. More>>

As Dionysos was travelling through the archipelago of the Aegean Sea that was captured by a tape of Tyrrhenian pirates who believed to market him right into slavery. The god infested their ship v phantoms of rise vines and also wild beasts, and in terror the males leapt overboard and were transformed right into dolphins. More>>

Dionysos married princess Ariadne that Krete (Crete) who he found abandoned through Theseus on the island the Naxos. More>>

The god introduced a campaign versus the Indian nation in the farthest reaches of Asia, leading an military composed the Satyrs, Mainades, and also demigods. More>>

Dionysos journeyed to the underworld to recover his mom Semele and also brought she to Olympos whereby Zeus transformed into the goddess Thyone. More>>

Many other myths are detailed over the adhering to pages.

SYMBOLS & ATTRIBUTES

Dionysos" many distinctive attribute to be the thyrsos, a pine-cone tipped staff. His other qualities included a drinking-cup (kantharos), fruiting grapevines and a panther.The god was typically clothed in a long robe (chiton) and also cloak (himation) and crowned with a wreath that ivy-leaves.

Below room some examples of his qualities as depicted in ancient Greek art:-

1. Pine-cone employee (thyrsos); 2. Thyrsos-staff head; 3. Grapevines; 4. Drinking-cup; 5. Wreath of ivy-leaves.

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SACRED animals & PLANTS

Dionysos" sacred pets were the panther (leopard), tiger, bull and serpent. The god rode on the back of a panther or drove a chariot drawn by a pair the the beasts. His spiritual plants were the grapevine, ivy, bindweed (prickly ivy) and also pine tree. Devotees that the god wore wreaths the ivy and also carried pine-cone tipped staffs.

Below are examples of the god"s animals as portrayed in old Greek art and also photos of his spiritual plants:-

1. Panther; 2. Grapevine; 3. Ivy; 4. Bindweed; 5. Jaw tree.

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DIONYSUS PAGES on priziv.org

This site includes a total of 14 pages describing the god, including basic descriptions, mythology, and cult. The content is outlined in the index of Dionysus Pages (left pillar or below).

FAMILY the DIONYSUS

PARENTS

<1> ZEUS & SEMELE (Hesiod Theogony 940, Homeric hymn 1 & 7 & 26, Pindar Odes Pythian 3, Bacchylides Frag 19, Apollodorus 3.26, Pausanias 3.24.4, Diodorus Siculus 4.2.1, Hyginus Fabulae 179, Nonnus Dionysiaca, et al)<2> ZEUS & DIONE (Scholiast ~ above Pindar"s Pythian 3.177; Hesychius)<3> ZEUS & SELENE (BENDIS?) (Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21-23)

OFFSPRING

See household of Dionysos

Dionysos was a child of Zeus, King that the Gods, and Semele, a mortal princess of Thebes. The god was recognized as the "twice-born" for his mommy was slain by the lightning-bolts the Zeus during the food of she pregancy, however rescued by his dad who lugged him come term sown up within his thigh. Dionysos" grandparents were the Titans Kronos (Cronus) and also Rheia, King Kadmos (Cadmus) that Thebes and also the goddess Harmonia. He to be a great-grandson of Ares and Aphrodite (Harmonia"s parents) and likewise a distant descendant of the god Poseidon.The god"s half-brothers and sisters contained Hermes, Ares, Aphrodite, Athena, Persephone, Apollon and Artemis.He married Ariadne, daughter the King Minos the Krete (Crete), and their sons became kings and also princes the the best wine-producing regions in old Greece. More>>

Below space two graphics portraying Dionysos" family tree, the very first with name transliterated indigenous the Greek and also the 2nd with the usual English spellings:--

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ENCYCLOPEDIA

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Dionysus-Bacchus, Greco-Roman marble frosting C2nd A.D., State Hermitage Museum

DIONYSOS, the youthful, beautiful, however effeminate god that wine. That is also called both by Greeks and Romans Bacchus (Bakchos), the is, the noisy or riotous god, i m sorry was originally a mere epithet or surname of Dionysus, but does not occur till after the time of Herodotus.

According come the common tradition, Dionysus to be the kid of Zeus and Semele, the daughter that Cadmus of Thebes (Hom. Hymn. vi. 56; Eurip. Bacch. init.; Apollod. Iii. 4. § 3); vice versa, others explain him as a boy of Zeus through Demeter, Io, Dione, or Arge. (Diod. Iii. 62, 74; Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. iii. 177; Plut. de Flum. 16.) Diodorus (iii. 67) further mentions a tradition, follow to which he to be a child of Ammon and Amaltheia, and that Ammon, from fear of Rhea, carried the kid to a cavern in the neighbourhood of mount Nysa, in a lonely island developed by the river Triton. Ammon over there entrusted the boy to Nysa, the daughter that Aristaeus, and Athena similarly undertook to defend the boy. Others again stand for him as a child of Zeus through Persephone or Iris, or define him simply as a kid of Lethe, or the Indus. (Diod. Iv. 4; Plut. Sympos. vii. 5; Philostr. Vit. Apollon. ii. 9.)

The same diversity of opinions prevails in regard to the indigenous place the the god, which in the usual tradition is Thebes, while in rather we uncover India, Libya, Crete, Dracanum in Samos, Naxos, Elis, Eleutherae, or Teos, pointed out as his birthplace. (Hom. Hymn. xxv. 8; Diod. Iii. 65, v. 75; Nonnus, Dionys. ix. 6; Theocrit. Xxvi. 33.) it is fan to this diversity in the heritages that ancient writers were propelled to the supposition that there were originally several divinities i m sorry were afterwards identified under the one surname of Dionysus. Cicero (de Nat. Deor. Iii 23) distinguishes five Dionysi, and also Diodorus (iii. 63, &c.) three.

The common story, which provides Dionysus a kid of Semele through Zeus, runs together follows: Hera, jealous of Semele, went to her in the disguise the a friend, or an old woman, and persuaded her to request Zeus to appear to she in the very same glory and majesty in i m sorry he was accustomed to method his own wife Hera. When all entreaties come desist from this inquiry were fruitless, Zeus at size complied, and also appeared to she in thunder and lightning. Semele was terrified and overpowered by the sight, and also being seized through the fire, she gave premature birth to a child. Zeus, or according to others, Hermes (Apollon. Rhod. Iv. 1137) conserved the boy from the flames: it to be sewed increase in the thigh the Zeus, and also thus pertained to maturity. Miscellaneous epithets which are given to the god refer to that occurrence, such together purigenês, mêrorraphês, mêrotraphês and also ianigena. (Strab. Xiii. P. 628; Diod. Iv. 5; Eurip. Bacch. 295; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 310; Ov. Met. iv. 11.)

After the birth of Dionysus, Zeus entrusted him to Hermes, or, according to others, to Persephone or Rhea (Orph. Hymn. xlv. 6; Steph. Byz. S. V. Mastaura), who took the boy to Ino and Athamas at Orchomenos, and persuaded lock to lug him up together a girl. Hera was currently urged on by she jealousy to litter Ino and also Athamas right into a state that madness, and also Zeus, in order to save his child, readjusted him right into a ram, and carried him come the nymphs of mount Nysa, who brought him up in a cave, and also were afterwards rewarded for it by Zeus, by being placed as Hyades amongst the stars. (Hygin. Fab. 182; Theon, ad Arat. Phaen. 177; comp. Hyades.)

The citizens of Brasiae, in Laconia, follow to Pausanias (iii. 24. § 3), said a different story about the bear of Dionysus, as soon as Cadmus heard, castle said, the Semele was mom of a son by Zeus, he placed her and her child into a chest, and also threw it right into the sea. The chest was brought by the wind and waves to the shore of Brasiae. Semele was uncovered dead, and also was solemnly buried, yet Dionysus was carried up through Ino, who happened at the moment to be in ~ Brasiae. The plain of Brasiae was, for this reason, later on called the garden that Dionysus.

The traditions about the education of Dionysus, as well as around the personages who undertook it, different as much as those about his parentage and birthplace. Besides the nymphs of mountain Nysa in Thrace, the muses, Lydae, Bassarae, Macetae, Mimallones (Eustath. ad Hom. pp. 982, 1816), the nymph Nysa (Diod. Iii. 69), and the nymphs Philia, Coronis, and also Cleis, in Naxos, whither the kid Dionysus was said to have actually been brought by Zeus (Diod. Iv. 52), are named as the beings to who the treatment of his infancy to be entrusted. Mystis, moreover, is said to have actually instructed him in the mysteries (Nonn. Dionys. xiii. 140), and Hippa, on mountain Tmolus, nursed the (Orph. Hymn. xlvii. 4); Macris, the daughter the Aristaeus, got him native the hands of Hermes, and also fed him v honey. (Apollon. Rhod. Iv. 1131.) On mountain Nysa, Bromie and Bacche as well are called his nurses. (Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vi. 15.)

Mount Nysa, indigenous which the god was thought to have obtained his name, was not only in Thrace and also Libya, yet mountains of the same name are found in different parts that the old world where he was worshipped, and also where the was thought to have introduced the cultivation of the vine. Hermes, however, is blended up with many of the stories about the infancy that Dionysus, and also he was frequently represented in works of art, in connexion with the child god. (Comp. Paus. Iii. 18. § 7.)

When Dionysus had grown up, Hera threw him additionally into a state that madness, in which the wandered about through plenty of countries that the earth. A heritage in Hyginus (Poet. Astr. ii. 23) renders him go very first to the oracle of Dodona, however on his means thither he pertained to a lake, which prevented his proceeding any type of further. Among two asses he met there brought him throughout the water, and also the thankful god placed both animals amongst the stars, and also asses henceforth continued to be sacred come Dionysus.

According to the usual tradition, Dionysus first wandered with Egypt, wherein he was hospitably got by king Proteus. The thence proceeded with Syria, wherein he flayed Damascus alive, for opposing the advent of the vine, which Dionysus was believed to have uncovered (euretês ampelou). He currently traversed every Asia. (Strab. Xv. P. 687; Eurip. Bacch. 13.) as soon as he landed on the Euphrates, he constructed a bridge to overcome the river, however a tiger sent to him by Zeus carried him across the flow Tigris. (Paus. X. 29; Plut. de Flum. 24.)

The many famous component of his wanderings in Asia is his expedition to India, which is claimed to have actually lasted three, or, according to some, even 52 years. (Diod. Iii. 63, iv. 3.) he did not in those distant regions fulfill with a kindly reception everywhere, because that Myrrhanus and also Deriades, with his 3 chiefs Blemys, Orontes, and Oruandes, fought versus him. (Steph. Byz. s.v. Blemues, Gazos, Gêreia, Dardai, Eares, Zabioi, Malloi, Pandai, Sibai.) however Dionysus and the host of Pans, Satyrs, and also Bacchic women, by who he was accompanied, overcame his enemies, teach the ind the cultivation of the vine and also of miscellaneous fruits, and also the prayer of the gods; he also founded towns amongst them, provided them laws, and also left behind the pillars and also monuments in the happy floor which he had thus conquered and also civilized, and the residents worshipped him as a god. (Comp. Strab. Xi. P. 505; Arrian, Ind. 5; Diod. Ii. 38; Philostr. Vit. Apollon. ii. 9; Virg. Aen. vi. 805.)

Dionysus also visited Phrygia and also the goddess Cybele or Rhea, who purified him and also taught him the mysteries, which according to Apollodorus (iii. 5. § 1.) took place prior to he checked out India. With the aid of his companions, that drove the Amazons indigenous Ephesus come Samos, and also there killed a an excellent number of castle on a spot which was, from the occurrence, called Panaema. (Plut. Quaest. Gr. 56.) according to an additional legend, the united through the Amazons come fight versus Cronus and also the Titans, who had expelled Ammon indigenous his dominions. (Diod. Iii. 70, &c.) the is also said to have gone come Iberia, which, ~ above leaving, that entrusted come the government of Pan. (Plut. de Flum. 16.)

On his passage through Thrace he to be ill got by Lycurgus, king of the Edones, and leaped right into the sea to seek refuge through Thetis, who he afterwards rewarded because that her sort reception with a golden urn, a existing of Hephaestus. (Hom. Il. vi. 135, &c., Od. xxiv. 74; Schol. ad Hom. Il. xiii. 91. Comp. Diod. Iii. 65.) every the organize of Bacchantic women and also Satyrs, who had actually accompanied him, to be taken prisoners by Lycurgus, but the women were quickly set complimentary again. The country of the Edones thereupon end to be affected by each other fruit, and Lycurgus came to be mad and also killed his own son, who he mistook for a vine, or, according to rather (Serv. ad Aen. iii. 14) he reduced off his own legs in the belief that he was cutting under some vines. As soon as this was done, his madness ceased, but the nation still continued to be barren, and Dionysus declared that the would remain so till Lycurgus died. The Edones, in despair, took their king and put him in chains, and also Dionysus had actually him take it to piece by horses.

After then proceeding v Thrace without conference with any further resistance, he went back to Thebes, where he compelled the ladies to quit your houses, and to celebrate Bacchic festivals on mountain Cithaeron, or Parnassus. Pentheus, who then rule at Thebes, endeavoured to check the riotous proceedings, and went out to the hills to look for the Bacchic women; but his own mother, Agave, in her Bacchic fury, mistook him because that an animal, and also tore him to pieces. (Theocrit. Id. xxvi.; Eurip. Bacch. 1142; Ov. Met. iii. 714, &c.)

After Dionysus had thus confirmed to the Thebans the he to be a god, he went to Argos. Together the world there likewise refused to acknowledge him, he made the women mad to such a degree, that they killed their very own babes and devoured your flesh. (Apollod. Iii. 5. § 2.) according to one more statement, Dionysus v a host of females came from the archipelago of the Aegean come Argos, yet was conquered by Perseus, who slew many of the women. (Paus. Ii. 20. § 3, 22. § 1.) Afterwards, however, Dionysus and Perseus ended up being reconciled, and the Argives adopted the prayer of the god, and also built temples to him. Among these was referred to as the holy place of Dionysus Cresius, because the god was believed to have buried on the spot Ariadne, his beloved, who was a Cretan. (Paus. Ii. 23. § 7.)

The last feat the Dionysus to be performed on a voyage from Icaria to Naxos. He rental a ship which belonged come Tyrrhenian pirates; however the men, rather of landing at Naxos, pass by and also steered towards Asia to market him there. The god, however, ~ above perceiving this, changed the mast and also oars into serpents, and also himself right into a lion; he filled the vessel with ivy and also the sound of flutes, so the the sailors, who were seized with madness, leaped right into the sea, wherein they to be metamorphosed right into dolphins. (Apollod. Iii. 5. § 3; Hom. Hymn. vi. 44; Ov. Met. iii. 582, &c.) In all his wanderings and also travels the god had actually rewarded those who had received that kindly and embraced his worship : he offered them vines and also wine.

After he had actually thus gradually created his divine nature transparent the world, that led his mother out of Hades, dubbed her Thyone, and also rose v her right into Olympus. (Apollod. l. C.) The place, where he had come forth through Semele native Hades, was presented by the Troezenians in the holy place of Artemis Soteira (Paus. Ii. 31. § 2); the Argives, ~ above the various other hand, said, the he had emerged with his mom from the Alcyonian lake. (Paus. Ii. 37. § 5; Clem. Alex. Adm. Ad Gr. p. 22.) there is also a mystical story, the the body of Dionysus was reduced up and also thrown into a cauldron through the Titans, and also that he was revived and cured through Rhea or Demeter. (Paus. Viii. 37. § 3; Diod. Iii. 62; Phurnut. N. D. 28.)

Various supernatural beings are explained as the offspring that Dionysus; but amongst the women, both mortal and also immortal, that won his love, none is much more famous in ancient background than Ariadne. The especially mixture of traditions which we have here had actually occasion come notice, and also which could still be significantly increased, seems evidently to be comprised out of the traditions of different times and countries, referring to analogous divinities, and also transferred to the Greek Dionysus.

We may, however, remark in ~ once, that all traditions which have actually reference to a mystic praise of Dionysus, space of a comparatively so late origin, the is, lock belong come the duration subsequent to the in i beg your pardon the Homeric poems to be composed; for in those poems Dionysus does not show up as among the great divinities, and the story that his birth by Zeus and the Bacchic orgies room not alluded to in any means : Dionysus is over there simply described as the god that teaches man the preparation of wine, whence the is referred to as the "drunken god " (mainomenos), and the sober king Lycurgus will certainly not, because that this reason, tolerate that in his kingdom. (Hom. Il. vi. 132, &c., Od. xviii. 406, comp. Xi. 325.) as the farming of the vine spread out in Greece, the praise of Dionysus an in similar way spread further; the mystic praise was emerged by the Orphici, despite it most likely originated in the deliver of Phrygian and Lydian settings of praise to the of Dionysus. After the time of Alexander"s exploration to India, the solemn event of the Bacchic festivals assumed much more and an ext their wild and also dissolute character.

As much as the nature and also origin that the god Dionysus is concerned, he shows up in all traditions as the representative of part power that nature, conversely, Apollo is largely an honest deity. Dionysus is the productive, overflowing and also intoxicating strength of nature, i beg your pardon carries male away from his usual quiet and also sober setting of living. Wine is the many natural and also appropriate price of the power, and also it is as such called "the fruit the Dionysus." (Dionusou karpos; Pind. Fragm. 89, ed. Böckh.) Dionysus is, therefore, the god of wine, the inventor and also teacher the its cultivation, the giver the joy, and also the disperser the grief and sorrow. (Bacchyl. ap. Athen. ii. P. 40; Pind. Fragm. 5; Eurip. Bacch. 772.)

As the god that wine, he is also both one inspired and also an inspiring god, the is, a god who has actually the strength of revealing the future to man by oracles. Thus, that is said, that he had actually as great a re-publishing in the Delphic oracle as Apollo (Eurip. Bacch. 300), and also he himself had actually an oracle in Thrace. (Paus. Ix. 30. § 5.) Now, together prophetic strength is always combined v the healing art, Dionysus is, prefer Apollo, referred to as iatpos, or hugiatês (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1624), and also at his oracle the Amphicleia, in Phocis, he cured illness by revealing the remedies come the sufferers in their dreams. (Paus. X. 33. § 5.) hence he is invoked as a theos sôtêr against raging diseases. (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 210; Lycoph. 206.)

The id of his being the cultivator and also protector that the vine was quickly extended to the of his gift the protector of tree in general, i beg your pardon is alluded to in miscellaneous epithets and surnames offered him by the poets of classical times (Paus. I. 31. § 2, vii. 21. § 2), and he therefore comes right into close connexion v Demeter. (Paus. Vii. 20. § 1; Pind. Isthm. vii. 3; Theocrit. Xx. 33; Diod. Iii. 64; Ov. Fast. iii. 736; Plut. Quaest. Gr. 36.)

This personality is tho further emerged in the notion of his being the promoter that civilization, a law-giver, and a lover that peace. (Eurip. Bacch. 420; Strab. X. P. 468; Diod. Iv. 4.) as the Greek drama had actually grown the end of the dithyrambic choruses in ~ the festivals of Dionysus, that was additionally regarded as the god of catastrophic art, and also as the protector of theatres. In later on times, he to be worshipped likewise as a theos chthonios, which might have occurred from his resemblance to Demeter, or have actually been the an outcome of one amalgamation of Phrygian and also Lydian develops of worship v those the the ancient Greeks. (Paus. Viii. 37, § 3; Arnob. adv. Gent. v. 19.)

The orgiastic praise of Dionysus seems to have actually been very first established in Thrace, and also to have thence spread out southward to mounts Helicon and also Parnassus, to Thebes, Naxos, and throughout Greece, Sicily, and also Italy, though part writers derived it indigenous Egypt. (Paus. I. 2. § 4; Diod. I. 97.) Respecting his festivals and the mode of their celebration, and also especially the development and suppression that his worship at Rome, check out Dict. The Ant. S. Vv. Agriônia, Anthestêria, Halôa, Aiôra, and also Dionysia.

In the earliest times the Graces, or Charites, were the companions the Dionysus (Pind. Ol. xiii. 20; Plut. Quaest. Gr. 36; Apollon. Rhod. Iv. 424), and also at Olympia he and the Charites had actually an altar in common. (Schol. ad Pind. Ol. v. 10 ; Paus. V. 14 in fin.) This situation is of an excellent interest, and points the end the great change i beg your pardon took location in the course of time in the setting of his worship, for later on we uncover him accompanied in his expeditions and travels through Bacchantic women. Dubbed Lenae, Maenades, Thyiades, Mimallones, Clodones, Bassarae or Bassarides, all of whom are represented in functions of art together raging with madness or enthusiasm, in vehement motions, their heads thrown backwards, through dishevelled hair, and also carrying in your hands thyrsus-staffs (entwined through ivy, and also headed through pine-cones), cymbals, swords, or serpents. Sileni, Pans, satyrs, centaurs, and other beings of a favor kind, are also the continuous companions that the god. (Strab. X. P. 468; Diod. Iv. 4. &c.; Catull. 64. 258 ; Athen i. P. 33; Paus. I. 2. § 7.)

The temples and also statues that Dionysus were an extremely numerous in the old world. Amongst the sacrifices i m sorry were available to that in the more quickly times, person sacrifices are likewise mentioned. (Paus. Vii. 21. § 1; Porphyr. de Abstin. ii. 55.) Subsequently, however, this barbarous tradition was softened down right into a symbolic scourging, or pets were substituted because that men, as at Potniae. (Paus. Viii. 23. § 1, ix. 8. § 1.)

The pet most generally sacrificed come Dionysus was a ram. (Virg. Georg. ii. 380, 395; Ov. Fast. i. 357.) among the things sacred to him, we may notification the vine, ivy, laurel, and also asphodel; the dolphin, serpent, tiger, lynx, panther, and also ass; yet he hated the vision of an owl. (Paus. Viii. 39. § 4; Theocrit. Xxvi. 4; Plut. Sympos. iii. 5; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 87; Virg. Eclog. v. 30; Hygin. Poët. Astr. ii. 23; Philostr. Imag. ii. 17; Vit. Apollon. iii. 40.)

The earliest pictures of the god were mere Hermae with the phallus (Paus. Ix. 12. § 3), or his head only was represented. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1964.) In later on works of art he shows up in four various forms:--1. Together an child handed over by Hermes to his nurses, or fondled and played with by satyrs and also Bacchae.2. Together a manly god through a beard, generally called the Indian Bacchus. That there appears in the character of a wise and dignified asian monarch; his features are expressive the sublime tranquillity and mildness; his mustache is long and soft, and his Lydian robes (bassara) room long and also richly folded. His hair sometimes floats down in locks, and also is sometimes neatly wound roughly the head, and also a diadem regularly adorns his forehead.3. The youthful or so-called Theban Bacchus, was carried to appropriate beauty by Praxiteles. The kind of his body is manly and also with solid outlines, but still viewpoints to the female form by that is softness and also roundness. The expression of the countenance is languid, and also shews a type of dreamy longing; the head, through a diadem, or a wreath that vine or ivy, leans rather on one side; his attitude is never sublime, however easy, favor that that a guy who is took in in sweet thoughts, or slightly intoxicated. The is often seen leaning ~ above his companions, or riding top top a panther, ass, tiger, or lion. The best statue that this kind is in the villa Ludovisi.4. Bacchus through horns, either those of a ram or of a bull. This representation occurs chiefly on coins, yet never in statues.

Source: thesaurus of Greek and also Roman Biography and Mythology.

CLASSICAL literature QUOTES

DIONYSUS MYTHS summary I APOLLODORUS

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Satyr and also Dionysus, Athenian red-figure kylix C5th B.C., Antikensammlung Berlin

Several old poets and also writers attempted to arrange the mythology the Dionysos into a tidy chronological narrative. However, this were artificial constructs--the stories were, for the most part, a loose collection of highly localised, unrelated cult myths.The mythographer Apollodorus provides us with the neatest of these narratives. Associated myths not discussed by this author are provided in the connect boxes adhering to each sub-section.

I. THE birth OF DIONYSUS

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 26 - 28 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :"Zeus fell in love through Semele and also slept v her, promising her anything she wanted, and also keeping it every from Hera. But Semele was deceived by Hera right into asking Zeus to involved her together he concerned Hera throughout their courtship. Therefore Zeus, unable to refuse, arrived in she bridal room in a chariot through lightning flashes and also thunder, and also sent a thunderbolt at her. Semele died of fright, and Zeus grabbed from the fire she six-month aborted baby, which he sewed right into his thigh. After ~ Semele"s death the remaining daughters the Kadmos (Cadmus) circulated the story that she had slept through a mortal, after that accusing Zeus, and because of this had actually been killed by a thunderbolt. At the suitable time Zeus loosened the stitches and also gave bear to Dionysos, whom he entrusted to Hermes."

For MYTHS the the birth of Dionysos see:(1) bear & fatality of Dionysus-ZAGREUS (Orphic myth)(2) birth & nursing of Dionysus

II. NURSED through INO & THE NYSIADES

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 29 - 30 :"Zeus loosened the stitches and also gave bear to Dionysos, whom he entrusted to Hermes. Hermes took him to Ino and Athamas, and also persuaded castle to carry him up together a girl. Incensed, Hera inflicted madness on them. As for Zeus, the escaped Hera"s fury by an altering Dionysos into a infant goat. Hermes take it him to the Nymphai of eastern Nysa, who Zeus in later times places amongst the stars and named the Hyades."

For MYTHS that the birth and nursing the Dionysos see:(1) birth & parenting of Dionysus(2) Mt Nysa Birthplace that Dionysus(3) Dionysos Wrath: Lycurgus (Iliad version)

III. DISCOVERS THE GRAPE VINE

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 31 :"Dionysos was the discoverer that the grapevine."

In later antiquity the story was developed into a love match between Dionysos and also the youth Ampelos "grape-vine."

For the myth of Dionysos exploration of the vine see:(1) Dionysus Loves: Ampelus (boy transformed right into the an initial grape-vine)(2) Dionysus & the exploration of Wine

V. Thrust MAD through HERA, WANDERS EGYPT & SYRIA

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 32 :"After Hera inflicted madness upon him, he wandered end Aigyptos (Egypt) and also Syria. The Aigyptian king Proteus first welcomed him."

This story to be probably created to describe his connection between Dionysos, the Egyptian Osiris and also the Phoenician god that wine.

For MYTHS of Dionysos in Egypt and Syria see:(1) Wanderings the Dionysus in Egypt and also Syria(2) Dionysus Loves: Beroe (Wooing the goddess of Beruit)(3) Dionysus in the east (Summary)

V. Taught THE ORGIES through RHEA-CYBELE IN PHRYGIA

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 33 :"After that he went to Kybela in Phrygia. There he to be purified by Rhea and also taught the mystic rites the initiation, after i m sorry he obtained from she his equipment and set out eagerly with Thrake (Thrace)."

This story was no doubt created to define his connection between the orgiastic cult of Dionysos in Greece and also those the the Phrygian god Kybele and also Sabazios in Anatolia.

For THE legend of Rhea-Kybele mentoring Dionysos in the orgiastic rites see:(1) Mentoring the Dionysus through Rhea-Cybele(2) Dionysus in the eastern (Summary)

VI. Travels ASIA & INDIA to teach VITICULTURE and WINEMAKING

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 34 :"Having traversed Thrake (Thrace) and the totality of India and set up pillars there."

These story to be later expanded to incorporate war-campaigns against the Indian and also Amazon nations. The story of Dionysos and also King Midas that Phrygia likewise falls in ~ this part of the cycle.

For MYTHS of Dionysos in Anatolia and also India see:(1) Dionysus Favour: Midas (king v the gold touch)(2) Dionysus & the Pillars that India(3) The Indian war of Dionysus(4) The Amazon war of Dionysus

VII. TRAVELS with THRACE & DRIVEN right into THE SEA through LYCURGUS

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 34 :"Now Lykourgos (Lycurgus), kid of Dryas and also king the the Edonians, who lived beside the Strymon River, to be the an initial to present his hybris come Dionysos by expelling the Dionysos fled to the sea and also took shelter with Nereus" daughter Thetis, however his Bakkhai (Bacchae) were taken captive along with the congregation of Satyroi (Satyrs) that accompanied the . . . The Edonians took Lykourgos to mount Pangaion (Pangaeum) and bound him, and also there in accordance with the will certainly of Dionysos, that was destroyed by his horses and died."

This story was connected with the orgiastic Thrakian cult the Sabazios. In Homer, the story is set during Dionysos" childhood, in other places he is one adult god travelling from land come land.

For the legend of Dionysos & Lykourgos:(1) Dionysus Wrath: Lycurgus(2) Refuge of Dionysus through Thetis(3) The Bacchanalia the Thrake(4) Dionysus established with foreign Gods (Sabazios)

VIII. Travel TO THEBES & PUNISHES THE IMPIOUS PENTHEUS

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 35 :"Dionysos crossed Thrake (Thrace) and came to Thebes, wherein he compelled the women to leaving their homes and cavort in a frenzy top top Kithairon (Cithaeron). Now Pentheus, Ekhion"s (Echion"s) boy by Aguae (Agave) and current mr of the soil after Kadmos (Cadmus), do the efforts to protect against these goings-on. The went increase on Kithairon to spy on the Bakkhai, yet was take it to piece by his mommy Agaue, because that in her madness she thought he to be a wild animal."

This story was associated with the facility of the god"s orgies on mount Kithairon in Boiotia.

For the legend of Dionysos & Pentheus see:(1) Dionysos & the Recapture that Mt Cithaeron(2) Bacchanalia of Mt Cithairon(3) Dionysus Wrath: Pentheus(4) Dionysus Wrath: Daughters the Cadmus(5) Dionysus Favour: Boeotian Bacchantes (transformed into leopards)

IX. Travels TO ATHENS & TEACHES ICARIUS WINEMAKING

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 191 :"Dionysos came to Attika (Attica) . . . Ikarios (Icarius) obtained Dionysos, who gave him a vine-cutting and taught the the arts of do wine. Ikarios was eager to re-superstructure the god"s kindness v mankind, therefore he went to some shepherds, who, once they had tasted the drink and also then delightedly and recklessly gulped it down undiluted, thought they had been poisoned and also slew Ikarios. Yet in the daylight castle regained your senses and buried him. Together his daughter was searching for him, a dog called Maira (Maera), who had been Ikarios" faithful companion, uncovered the corpse; and also Erigone, in the act of mourning she father, hanged herself."

For MYTHS of Dionysos, Ikarios and Erigone see:(1) Dionysus Favour: Icarius & Erigone(2) Dionysus Loves: Erigone

X. Travels THE AEGEAN & PUNISHES THE TYRRHENIAN PIRATES

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 36 :"When the wanted passage across from Ikaria (Icaria) come Naxos he rental a trireme that Tyrrhenian pirates. However when they had him top top board, lock sailed past Naxos and headed because that Asia whereby they to plan to offer him. He thereupon readjusted the mast and the oars into snakes, and also filled the boat with ivy and also the sound the flutes. The males went mad and dove into the sea, wherein they ended up being dolphins."

Apollodorus areas the story of Dionysos" Aegean wanderings after Argos (section 12). However, in the usual tradition, Dionysos come in Argos native the islands with Ariadne and an military of island women.

For the legend of Dionysos & the pirates see:(1) Dionysus Wrath: Tyrrhenian Pirates

XI. Arrives ON NAXOS & MARRIES ARIADNE

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca E1. 9 :"Dionysos dropped in love through Ariadne, and kidnapped her , acquisition her off to Lemnos wherein he had actually sex through her, and also begat Thoas, Staphylos, Oinopion (Oenopion), and also Peparethos ."

Apollodorus defines the wedding that Dionysos and Ariadne in the Theseus ar of his book. The story, however, belongs right here in the chronology of the Dionysos saga. It seems unlikely she to be originally linked with Theseus, due to the fact that her story and children otherwise belong come an earlier generation that myth.

For MYTHS the Dionysos ~ above Naxos see:(1) Dionysus Loves: Ariadne(2) Dionysus Favour: the Hyades

XII. Travel TO ARGOS & PUNISHES THE IMPIOUS ARGIVES

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 28. 37 :"After Dionysos had demonstrated to the Thebans that he was a god, he visited Argos where again the drove the females mad when the human being did not pay him honour, and also up in the hills the women fed on the flesh of the babies suckling at their breasts."

In various other versions that this story, the Argives were punished for the impiety of their king--Proitos, Akrisios or Perseus. In the local Argive legend Perseus warred through Dionysos and his convoy of island women and also Ariadne was killed in the fighting.

For MYTHS of Dionysos in Argos see:(1) Dionysus Wrath: Proetius & the Proetides(2) war of Dionysus against Perseus & the Argives

XIII. RECOGNISED together A GOD

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 37 :"With occasions like these, men learned that Dionysos was a god, and they began to honour him."

The recognition of the big of Dionysos is applicable to all the previous stories of his wanderings.

IV. RECOVERS HIS mommy FROM HADES & enters OLYMPUS

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 37 :"He retrieved his mother from Haides" realm, provided her the surname Thyone, and escorted her as much as the sky."

This myth had a location in Argive cult, where Dionysos is said to have descended come Haides with the Alkyonean Lake. His quest to the underworld perhaps likewise included the restore of his mam Ariadne, who had been slain through Perseus in the Argive war, in addition to recovering his mom Semele. Death and also reincarnation was vital part that the Dionysian cult.The story that the binding the Hera, in which Dionysos led Hephaistos earlier to Olympos to release the goddess and was offered a seat among the twelve Olympians, is curiously lacking from Apollodorus. The myth was incredibly popular in Athenian vase painting.

For MYTHS the Dionysos" journey to the Underwold and also his apotheosis:(1) Divinity-Apotheosis that Dionysus (receives complete honours as a god on earth)(2) journey of Dionysus come the Underworld (restores Semele indigenous Hades)(3) Ascension of Dionysus & Hephaestus come Olympus

OTHER various ADVENTURES

Several other stories are missing from Apollodorus" account.

For other MYTHS that Dionysos" wanderings see:(1) Dionysus Favour: Oeneus

DIONYSUS MYTHS an overview II AESCHYLUS

The Theban legends that Dionysos were the subject of no less than 5 of the lost plays of Aeschylus: Semelê ê Hudrophoroi, Dionusos trophoi (or Trophoi), Bakchai, Xantriai, Pentheus. In addition, in ~ least 4 others described the god"s Thracian encounters: Edonoi, Lykourgos, Neaniskoi and the Bassarae.

DIONYSUS MYTHS an introduction III SENECA

Seneca"s Hymn come Dionysos in the pat Oedipus summarizes the god"s story from bear to heavenly ascension. Watch Seneca Pseudo-Hymn come Dionysus

DIONYSUS MYTHS review IV NONNUS

The late Roman-era Greek poet Nonnus created an epic city describing the birth and also adventures of Dionysos, centred top top his War against the Indians. His account the the wanderings that Dionysos varies from that of Apollodorus, with its emphasis on story of the East. Ns will carry out an summary of this contents of this epos at a later on stage (which due to its dimension is not possible to quote here in depth). The first fourteen books of the epic can be found here.

HYMNS come DIONYSUS

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Silenus, Dionysus and also Bacchante, Paestan red-figure vase C4th B.C., Musée du LouvreI. THE HOMERIC HYMNS

Homeric hymn 1 come Dionysus 17 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epos C7th to fourth B.C.) :" . . . It is in favourable, O Insewn (eiraphiot),Inspirer the frenzied ladies (gynaimanes)! us singers song of you together we begin and also as we finish a strain, and none forget you may call holy song to mind. And also so, farewell, Dionysos Insewn (eiraphiota) through your mommy Semele who men call Thyone."

Homeric singing 7 to Dionysus :"I sing of Dionysos, the kid of glorious Semele. . . . Hail, boy of fair-faced Semele! He that forgets you can in no way order sweet song."

Homeric chant 26 to Dionysus :"I start to sing of Dionysos ivy-crowned (kissokomes) the loud-crying (eribromos), splendid kid of Zeus and also glorious Semele. The rich-haired Nymphai (Nymphs) received him in their bosoms native the mr his father and also fostered and also nurtured him carefully in the dells the Nysa, wherein by the will of his dad he thrived up in a sweet-smelling cave, gift reckoned among the immortals. Yet when the goddesses had brought him up, a god oft hymned, then began he come wander continually through the woody coombes, more thick wreathed through ivy and laurel. And also the Nymphai complied with in his train through him for your leader; and also the boundless forest was filled v their outcry.And therefore hail to you, Dionysos god of abundant clusters (polystaphylos)! give that we might come again rejoicing come this season, and from that season onwards for countless a year."

II. THE ORPHIC HYMNS

Orphic chant 45 to Dionysus (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. To second A.D.) :"Come, blessed Dionysos, various-named, bull-faced, begot indigenous thunder, Bakkhos (Bacchus) famed. Bassaros God, of universal might, whom swords and blood and sacred rage delight: in sky rejoicing, mad, loud-sounding God, furious inspirer, bearer of the rod: by god revered, who dwellest with humankind, propitious come, with lot rejoicing mind."

Orphic hymn 30 come Dionysus :"Dionysos I contact loud-sounding and divine, motivating God, a twofold shape is thine: thy assorted names and attributes i sing, O firstborn (protogonos), thrice begotten (trigonos), Bakkheion (Bacchian) king. Rural, ineffable, two-formed, obscure, two-horned, v ivy crowned, and also Euion pure: bull-faced and also martial, bearer the the vine, endued v counsel prudent and divine: Eubouleos (Eubuleus), whom the pipeline of vines adorn, that Zeus and Persephoneia occultly born in beds ineffable; all-blessed power, whom with triennial offerings men adore. Immortal Daimon, hear mine suppliant voice, give me in blameless plenty come rejoice; and listen gracious to my mystic prayer surrounded through thy choir of nurses fair."

Orphic hymn 46 come Licnitus :"Liknitos (Lictinus) Dionysos, bearer that the vine, thee i invoke to bless these rites divine: florid and gay, that Nymphai (NYmphs) the blossom bright, and also of same Aphrodite, Goddess the delight. "Tis thine foolish footsteps v mad Nymphai come beat, dancing with groves with lightly leaping feet: native Zeus" high counsels nursed by Persephoneia, and also born the dread of all the strength divine. Come, blessed God, regard thy suppliant"s voice, propitious come, and also in these rites rejoice."

Orphic singing 47 come Pericionius :"Bakkhos Perikionios (Bacchus Pericionius), hear mine prayer, who madest the house of Kadmos (Cadmus) as soon as thy care, v matchless force his pillars twine round, as soon as burning thunders shook the hard ground, in flaming, sound torrents borne along, propped by thy master indissolubly strong. Come, mighty Bakkhos, to these rites inclined, and also bless your suppliants through rejoicing mind."

Orphic hymn 50 to Lysius Lenaeus :"Hear me, Zeus" son, blest Bakkhos (Bacchus), God the wine, born of 2 mothers, honoured and divine; Lysios Euios (Lysius Evius) Bakkhos, various-named, of god the offspring, secret, holy, famed. Fertile and also nourishing, whose liberal care augments the fruit the banishes despair. Sounding, magnanimous, Lenaios power, that various-formed, medicinal, divine flower: mortals in thee repose from labour find, exciting charm, wanted by every mankind. Fair-haired Euion, Bromios, joyful God, Lysios, insanely raging with the irpari rod. To these our rites, benignant power, incline, once favouring men, or as soon as on god you shine; be current to thy mystics" suppliant prayer, rejoicing come, and fruits abundant bear."

Orphic singing 52 to Trietericus :"Bakkhos (Bacchus) phrenetic, lot named, blessed, divine, bull-horned, Lernaion, bearer that the vine; from fire descended, ranging, Nysion king, from whom initial ceremonies spring. Liknitos (Licnitus), pure and fiery bright, prudent, Eubouleos (Eubuleus) crown-bearer, hike in the night; nursed in mount Mero, all-mysterious power, triple, ineffable, Zeus" mystery flower; Erikepaios (Ericepaeus), first-begotten named, of gods the father and also the offspring famed. Bearing a sceptre, leader of the choir, who dancing feet phrenetic furies fire, when the triennial band thou dost inspire, Omadion, captor, the a fiery light, born of two mothers, Amphietos birght; love, mountain-wandering, clothed with skins the deer, Paian golden-rayed, whom every revere. An excellent annual god that grapes, the ivy crowned, Bassaros, lovely, virginlike, renowned. Come, blessed power, regard thy mystic"s voice, propitious come, and also in this rites rejoice."

Orphic singing 53 come Amphietus :"Khthonion (Chthonian) Dionysos, hear my prayer, climb vigilant through Nymphai of lovely hair : an excellent Bakkhos (Bacchus) Amphietos, annual God, that laid asleep in Persephone"s abode, her sacred seat, didst lull come drowsy remainder the rites triennial and the spiritual feast; i m sorry roused again by thee, in graceful ring, thy nurses round thee mystic anthems sing; as soon as briskly dancing through rejoicing powers, she movest in concert with the circling hours. Come blessed, fruitful, horned, and divine, and on this sacred consecration propitious shine; accept the pious incense and also the prayer, and also make prolific the holy fruits her care."

III. OVID PSEUDO-HYMN

Ovid, Metamorphoses 4. 14 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. Come C1st A.D.) :" called on Bacchus by his many noble names: Lyaeus, Bromius; son of flaming fire; alone double mothered and alone double born; great lord and planter of the genial grape; Nyseus too, and Lenaeus and Thyoneus, whose locks are never shorn; Nyctelius, Iacchus, Euhan, father Eleleus; and all the plenty of titles that room yours, Liber , throughout the soil of Greece."

IV. SENECA PSEUDO-HYMN

Seneca, Oedipus 401 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :"Let the people"s singing sound through the praise of Bacchus .Bind your streaming locks with the nodding ivy, and also in her soft hands grasp the Nysaean thyrsus! glowing glory the the sky, come hither come the prayers which thine own illustrious Thebes, O Bacchus, offers to thee v suppliant hands. Hither turn with favour your virginal face; v thy star-bright countenance drive away the clouds, the grim dangers of Erebus, and greedy fate. Thee it becomes to circle her locks through flowers of the springtime, thee to cover your head through Tyrian turban, or her smooth brow come wreathe v the ivy"s clustering berries; currently to fling loosened thy lawless-streaming locks, again to bind them in a node close-drawn; in such guise as when, fearing your stepdame"s wrath, you didst thrive to manhood through false-seeming limbs, a pretended maiden with gold ringlets, through saffron girdle binding your garments. So thereafter this soft vesture has pleased thee, folds loose hanging and the long-trailing mantle. Seated in thy gold chariot, thy lions with long trappings covered, every the huge coast the the Orient observed thee, both he that drinks that the Ganges and whoever division the ice of snowy Araxes.On one unseemly ass old Silenus attends thee, his swollen holy places bound v ivy garlands; while thy wanton initiates lead the mystic revels. Together with thee a troop of Bassarids in Edonian run beat the ground, currently on mountain Pangaeus" peak, now on the optimal of Thracian Pindus; now midst Cadmean dames has actually come a maenad , the impious comrade of Ogygian Bacchus, with sacred fawn-skins girt around her loins, her hand a irradiate thyrsus brandishing. Your hearts maddened by thee, the matrons have collection their hair a-flowing; and at length, after the rending that Pentheus" limbs, the Bacchanals, their bodies now freed from the frenzy, looked on their notorious deed together though castle knew that not.Cadmean Ino, foster-mother of bright Bacchus, holds the realms of the deep, encircled by bands the Nereids dancing; over the tide of the mighty deep a young holds sway, brand-new come, the kinsman the Bacchus, no common god, Palaemon.Thee, O boy, a Tyrrhenian band as soon as captured and Nereus allayed the swollen sea; the dark blue waters he changed to meadows. Thence prosper the plane-tree v vernal foliage and also the laurel-grove dear come Phoebus; the chatter of bird sounds loud v the branches. Fast-growing ivy clings come the oars, and also grape-vines twine at the mast-head. On the prow one Idaean lion roars; at the stern crouches a tiger of Ganges. Climate the scared pirates swimming in the sea, and plunged in the water your bodies assume brand-new forms: the robbers" arms very first fall away; their breasts smite your bellies and are join in one; a tiny hand comes under at the side; v curving earlier they dive right into the waves, and with crescent-shaped tail castle cleave the sea; and now together curved dolphins they monitor the fleeing sails.On its affluent stream has Lydian Pactolus borne thee, leading along its burning banks the gold waters; the Massgetan that mingles blood v milk in his goblets has actually unstrung his vanquished bow and given up his Getan arrows; the worlds of axe-wielding Lycurgus have actually felt the rule of Bacchus; the fierce lands of the Zalaces have actually felt it, and those wandering tribes whom neighbouring Boreas smites, and also the countries which Maeotis" cold water washes, and they on whom the Arcadian constellation looks under from the zenith and the wagons twain. He has actually subdued the scattered Gelonians; he has wrested your arms kind the warrior maidens ; with downcast challenge they dropped to earth, those Thermodontian hordes, gave up at size their irradiate arrows, and also became maenads. Sacred Cithaeron has flowed with the blood the Ophionian slaughter ; the Proetides fled to the woods, and Argos, in his stepdame"s an extremely presence, payment homage to Bacchus.Naxos, girt by the Aegean sea, gave him in marriage a deserted maiden , compensating she loss with a better husband. Out of the dried rock over there gushed Nyctelian liquor ; babbling rivulets separated the grassy meadows; deep the earth drank in the sweet juices, white fountains of snowy milk and Lesbian alcohol mingled through fragrant thyme. The new-made bride is caused the lofty heavens; Phoebus a stately anthem sings, with his locks flowing down his shoulders, and twin Cupides brandish their torches. Jupiter lays next his fiery weapons and, as soon as Bacchus comes, abhors his thunderbolt.While the bright stars the the old heavens shall operation in their courses; while Oceanus shall encircle the imprisoned planet with its waters; while full Luna gather again her lost radiance; while Lucifer candlestick herald the dawn that the morning and also while the lofty bear shall know naught of caerulean Nereus; so lengthy shall we praise the shining challenge of beauteous Lyaeus ."

PHYSICAL explanation OF DIONYSUS

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Dionysus-Bacchus, Greco-Roman mosaic indigenous Daphne C4th A.D., Rhode Island institution of design Museum

Classical literature offers only a few, short descriptions that the physical features of the gods.

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Homeric singing 7 to Dionysus 1 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epos C7th to fourth B.C.) :"He showed up on a jutting headland by the coast of the fruitless sea, seeming like a stripling in the an initial flush the manhood: his rich, dark hair was waving about him, and on his solid shoulders he wore a purple robe."

Euripides, Bacchae 90 ff (trans. Buckley) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :" the bull-horned god (theos taurokeros), and he crowned him through crowns that snakes."

Euripides, Bacchae 135 ff :"In the hills . . . The leader the the dance is Bromios, euhoi! The plain flows v milk, that flows v wine, it flows v the nectar the bees. Bakkheus (Bacchus), elevating the flaming torch of pine tree on his thyrsos, prefer the acting of Syrian incense, darts about, arousing the wanderers through his racing and also dancing, agitating them through his shouts, spreading his rich locks into the air. And amongst the Mainades (Maenads) cries his voice ring deep."

Euripides, Bacchae 230 ff :"Some stranger has come . . . Fragrant in hair with gold curls, having in his eyes the wine-dark graces the Aphrodite."

Euripides, Bacchae 350 ff :" ‘This effeminate stranger .’"

Euripides, Bacchae 455 ff :" ‘Your body is no ill-formed, stranger, for women"s purposes . . . For your hair is long, not with wrestling, scattered over her cheeks, full of desire; and you have a white skin from cautious preparation, hunting after Aphrodite by your beauty no exposed come strokes that the sun, but beneath the shade.’"

Pausanias, description of greece 5. 19. 6 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :" Dionysos is lying down in a cave, a bearded figure holding a golden cup, and also clad in a tunic reaching to the feet. Around him room vines, apple-trees and also pomegranate-trees."

Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 15 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) :"There are countless features of Dionysos for those that wish to represent him in painting or sculpture, by showing which even approximately the artist has captured the god. Because that instance, the ivy clusters creating a crown room the clear mark of Dionysos, even if the workmanship is poor; and also a horn simply springing indigenous the temples reveals Dionysos, and also a leopard, though but just visible, is a prize of the god."

Callistratus, descriptions 6 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd to fourth A.D.) :" the resembled Dionysos; because that his forehead glistened through graces and his cheeks, reddening come youthful bloom, to be radiantly beautiful, conveying to the beholder"s eye a fragile blush."

Callistratus, explanation 8 :" ~ above the statue the Dionysos . . . The hand of Praxiteles wrought works of arts that to be altogether alive. There to be a grove, and also in it stood Dionysos in the kind of a young man, so fragile that the bronze to be transformed into flesh, v a human body so supple and relaxed that it seemed to covers some different material rather of copper : for though it was really bronze, it however blushed, and also though it had actually no component in life, it sought to show the appearance of life and would productivity to the really finger-tip if you touch it, because that though it was yes, really compact bronze, it was so softened right into flesh by arts that that shrank native the call of the hand. It had actually the bloom the youth, the was complete of daintiness, the melted through desire, as certainly Euripides stood for him when he fashioned his picture in the Bakkhai. A wreath the ivy encircled his head--since the bronze to be in fact ivy, bent as it was into sprays and also holding up the curly locks which fell in profusion from his forehead. And also it was complete of laughter, nay, it completely passed the border of wonder in that the material gave out proof of joy and the copper feigned to represent the emotions. A fawn-skin clothed the statue, not such together Dionysos to be accustomed to wear, yet the copper was reinvented to imitate the pelt; and he stood resting his left hand on a thyrsos, and also the thyrsos trickery the beholder"s vision; for while it was wrought of copper it seemed to glisten v the greenness the young growth, together though the were in reality transformed into the tree itself. The eye was gleaming v fire, in figure the eye of a man in a frenzy; because that the bronze displayed the Bakkhic madness and also seemed to it is in divinely inspired, just as, ns think, Praxiteles had the power to infuse into the statue likewise the Bakkhic ecstasy."

Ovid, Metamorphoses 3. 550 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epos C1st B.C. To C1st A.D.) :" an unarmed young . . . in his organization not the art of war, weapons and cavalry, but tender garlands, myrrh-scented tresses and embroidered robes of gold and also purple."

Ovid, Metamorphoses 3. 664 ff :" uncovered on this lonely spot, a young , together pretty as a girl. He appeared to reel, half-dazed v wine and also sleep, and practically failed to follow along. Ns gazed in ~ his attire, his face, his bearing; whatever I saw seemed more than mortal. Ns felt sure of that . . . Ivy creeping, winding, clinging, bound the oars and also decked the sails in hefty clusters. Bacchus himself, grape-bunches garlanding his brow, brandished a spear the vine-leaves twined, and also at his feet fierce spotted panthers lay, tigers and lynxes too, in phantom forms."

Ovid, Metamorphoses 4. 18 ff :"You have actually youth unfading; you"re a boy for ever; friend shine the fairest in the firmament. As soon as you put by her horns, her countenance is choose a lover girl"s."

Seneca, Hercules Furens 472 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :"But dainty Bacchus does no blush come sprinkle through perfume his flow locks, nor in his soft hand to brandish the slender thrysus, when with mincing gait the trails his robe gay v barbaric gold."

Seneca, Oedipus 413 ff :" bind your streaming locks with the nodding ivy, and also in your soft hands grasp the Nysaean thyrsus! . . . Thee it becomes to circle her locks v flowers the the springtime, thee to cover thy head v Tyrian turban, or your smooth brow to wreathe v the ivy"s clustering berries; currently to fling loosened thy lawless-streaming locks, again to bind them in a knot close-drawn; in together guise as when, fearing your stepdame"s wrath, you didst flourish to manhood v false-seeming limbs, a pretended maiden with golden ringlets, through saffron girdle binding your garments. So thereafter this soft vesture has actually pleased thee, folds loose hanging and the long-trailing mantle. Seated in thy gold chariot, thy lions with lengthy trappings covered, all the large coast the the Orient experienced thee."

Seneca, Phaedra 753 ff :"Bacchus , native thyrsus-bearing India, through unshorn locks, perpetually young, thou who frightenest tigers through thy vine-clad spear, and with a turban bindest your hornèd head."