A compilation that the misinformation, disinformation and many garbage legal difficulties by Trump and also his allies to try to overturn votes


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Cobb ar election workers recount votes by hand Nov. 13 in Marietta, Ga. (Kevin D. Liles for The Washington Post)

Fact: State officials have actually certified election results in six swing states that Biden won: Arizona, Georgia, Michigan, Nevada, Pennsylvania and also Wisconsin. In 2 states, Georgia and also Wisconsin, recounts make no difference in the results.

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On Dec. 7, Georgia Secretary that State Brad Raffensperger, a Republican, recertified the state’s outcomes after one audit-triggered hand recount and also a officially recount requested by the trumped campaign. Biden’s margin was around 12,000 votes, a decline of a couple of hundred votes.

“Whether that is the president of the United claims or a fail gubernatorial candidate, disinformation about election management should be condemned and also rejected,” Raffensperger said, referring both come Trump’s claims and also to Stacey Abrams’s 2018 democratic run because that governor. “Integrity matters. Fact matters.”


Learn more: The certified results of state and federal races deserve to be discovered on the Georgia secretary that state’s websitechevron-right

Read: Georgia’s 5.1 million votes have actually now to be counted three timeschevron-rightRelated: how Georgia is conducting that is recount the the recountchevron-rightRelated: write-up Fact Checker on Trump’s poll fraud claimschevron-right

Were representatives from both parties enabled to watch counting that votes in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia?

Claim: trump tweeted on Nov. 13 the he winner Pennsylvania due to the fact that “700,000 ballots to be not allowed to be viewed in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.” He and Giuliani, his an individual attorney, have ongoing to make the claim. In a court filing, the Trump campaign contended that “Allegheny and Philadelphia Counties alone received and also processed 682,479 mail-in and absentee ballots without review by the politics parties and also candidates.”

On Dec. 2, in a 46-minute video clip from the White House, Trump recurring his claim and also added: “There is only one possible reason the the corrupt Democrat political machine would oppose transparency throughout the vote counting. It’s because they understand they space hiding illegal activity. It’s an extremely simple. This is one egregious, inexcusable and irreversible damage that stains the entire election. Yet this unprecedented practice of excluding our observers, our poll watchers, as some civilization call them, developed in Democrat-run cities, in key states all across the nation.”

Fact: Under Pennsylvania election law, every political party and candidate is licensed has been granted to have actually a representative “in the room” to clock ballots gift counted, and also state and also local officials have actually said that all parties had access to the count. Allegheny county spokeswoman Amie Downs has said the “at no time were canvassing operations carried out without observers having actually the chance to view the process and the counting.” Braced for conspiracy theories, Philadelphia authorities live-streamed the count online. Pennsylvania Gov. Tom wolf (D) stated on Nov. 4 the “all parties have canvass observers” during the count, which continued for numerous days. Part 2.4 million civilization in Pennsylvania vote by letter in the 2020 election, and their ballots can not it is in opened and also counted till Election Day, follow to a regulation enacted by the state’s Republican-controlled legislature.

In its continuous federal suit versus the state and county boards of election, the campaign dropped its insurance claim for legal activity based ~ above the assertion that observers were denied accessibility to the count. In a revised fit filed top top Nov. 15, the project again inquiry U.S. Ar Judge Matthew W. Brann to block the certification of Pennsylvania’s election results. But a second request to block the certification of all votes wherein observer accessibility was allegedly minimal was turned off in the amended suit. And also the brand-new version stripped out all of the legitimate counts based upon the allegation that ballots were counted in secret.

Trump’s pared-down sue then concentrated on allegations that Republicans were illegally disadvantaged due to the fact that some Democratic-leaning counties permitted voters to deal with errors on your mail ballots. Counties have actually said this influenced only a small number of votes.

In a ruling on Nov. 21, Brann dismissed the suit, composing that the Trump campaign had offered “strained legal disagreements without merit and also speculative accusations” stitched together “like Frankenstein’s Monster” in a bid to litter out numerous votes. A federal appeals court upheld that judgment on Nov. 27, writing: “Charges require specific allegations and also then proof. We have neither here. Voters, no lawyers, select the President. Ballots, not briefs, decide elections.”

Secretary that the commonwealth Kathy Boockvar (D) certified Biden’s success on Nov. 24, ~ receiving main confirmation that the presidential vote totals from all 67 counties in the state. Wolf then signed a certificate picking Biden’s slate that electors, which to be submitted to the commonwealth government.


Related: read the U.S. Ar Court opinionchevron-right

Related: check out the ruling by the U.S. Court that Appeals because that the 3rd Circuitchevron-rightRelated: Fact-checking Giuliani’s claimschevron-right

Did election officials manipulate signature-verification machinery?

Trump claim: Trump has actually repeated unfounded insurance claims that election officials in Democratic-leaning Clark county manipulated a maker used come verify signatures to “allow huge numbers of ballots to be counted that otherwise would certainly never have actually passed muster.” In a 46-minute video clip posted online, Trump claimed that officials had actually “intentionally lowered” the machine’s conventional for matching a ballot signature to signatures on file. “This an equipment was set at the lowest level, follow to one report,” the said. “They stated you can sign your name together Santa Claus and it would certainly be accepted.”

Reality: ~ a nine-hour evidentiary listening that focused in large part on the signature-verification machine, a Carson City judge discovered no proof that the use of the so-called Agilis device was illegal, error-prone or had led to the counting of fraudulent votes. In fact, that pointed out, Clark County had used the very same Agilis an equipment in the June primary, and also Republicans had not complained till the eve of the basic election.

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Pro-Trump demonstrators, reflected in the window, protest outside the Clark County choice Department ~ above Nov. 6 in las Vegas. (Mikayla Whitmore for The Washington Post)

Clark county Registrar of voter Joe Gloria stated the manufacturer the the Agilis did not recommend any details setting; the an equipment had come preset at a default level the 50. Clark County readjusted that level come 40, yet even with that adjustment, the an equipment verified just the most apparent signature matches, around 30 percent the the total. The remainder were confirmed manually by election workers.

The Trump campaign appealed the judge’s ruling to the Nevada can be fried Court, which decreased to order any type of changes to Clark County’s process, finding the the project did not have enough evidence to earlier up that is allegations. Then other Republicans filed a sue making similar claims in federal court, including a brand-new claim that the Agilis machine’s failure had disenfranchised one voter, Jill Stokke. Stokke claimed she saw vote in person, just to find out that ar records confirmed her as currently having actors a letter ballot. Her lawyers argued that to be the fault of the Agilis machine, which had actually wrongly verified someone else’s signature together Stokke’s.

But there to be no evidence that the Agilis maker was affiliated at all. In fact, when Stokke complained, officials reviewed she signature manually and found the to it is in a match. They told her she can vote if she signed one affidavit swearing the the signature on the letter ballot was no hers. She refused.

The commonwealth judge additionally declined come order changes, recognize “little come no proof that the an equipment is no doing what it is claimed to do.”

The trump card campaign, in a lawsuit seeking come overturn the election results in Nevada, is still arguing that the Agilis machine is deeply flawed.

On Dec. 4, judge James T. Russell the the an initial Judicial ar Court in Carson City vetted each claim of fraud and wrongdoing do by the Trump project in the state and also found that none was sustained by convincing proof. The referee dismissed the difficulty with prejudice, judgment that the campaign failed to offer any type of basis for annulling more than 1.3 million votes actors in the state in the presidential race.

The campaign “did not prove under any standard of proof the illegal votes to be cast and counted, or legitimate votes were not counted at all, due to voter fraud, nor in one amount equal to or higher than” Biden’s margin the victory, i beg your pardon was about 33,600 votes, Russell wrote.

The Trump project has appealed the decision come the Nevada can be fried Court.


Read: trumped campaign’s legal efforts founder in 6 states, consisting of Nevadachevron-right

Key dates: Dec. 8 to be the “safe harbor” day for states in certifying results. Dec. 14 is when the electoral university meets.chevron-rightExplainer: exactly how the electoral college workschevron-right

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Election employees wait on much more absentee ballots come open and prep for scanning in ~ the DeKalb ar Voter Registration and also Elections Office in Atlanta ~ above Nov. 4. (Kevin D. Liles for The Washington Post)

Does video show suitcases stuffed v ballots or standard storage?

Trump claim: The president retweeted his own campaign account’s tweet that “video clip from Georgia shows suitcases filled through ballots pulled from under a table after supervisors told poll workers to leaving room and 4 world stayed behind to store counting votes.” at a rally Dec. 5 in Valdosta, Ga., for Republican Sens. Kelly Loeffler and David Perdue ahead of runoff vote on Jan. 5, that said: “I don’t operation to view if human being are go in v suitcases and also putting them under a table v a black robe roughly it. I don’t carry out that. That’s approximately your government here.”

Reality: an affidavit filed by the cook investigator for the Georgia Secretary of State’s Office on Dec. 6 stated that a evaluation of protection footage showed no ballots were placed under the table during the day.

Frances Watson wrote: “Investigation and also review that the entire security footage revealed the there to be no mystery ballots the were carried in native an unknown location and hidden under tables as had been report by some.”

After interviewing witnesses and viewing the defense footage indigenous the arena, Watson “discovered that observers and media were no asked come leave. They simply left on their own as soon as they experienced one team of workers, whose project was only to open envelopes and who had actually completed that task, also leave.”

Boxes that were packed v ballots that had already been opened but not counted to be resealed and also placed under the table because that the next session that counting, Watson claimed in the affidavit.

Georgia initially certified the election results on Nov. 20. The state has completed its 3rd count that the an ext than 5 million ballots cast in the state and also recertified the results on Dec. 7.

On Nov. 30, a peak Raffensperger aide, Gabriel Sterling, claimed of the disinformation: “They’re insanity. Heat dream. Make up. Web cabal.”

He referred to as on trumped to stop spreading false claims about fraud, speak in an impassioned speech that the rhetoric was resulting in threats of violence against election workers.

On Dec. 6, Sterling said he made decision to speak the end after receiving a phone contact from a project manager at dominion Voting Systems, the firm that has been at the facility of the false fraud claims by Trump and his allies.

Sterling stated the manager told the “in a really audibly shaken voice” that one of his contractors, “a young tech” in Georgia, had been receiving death threats.

“He took a task a couple of weeks ago. He’s one of their better ones,” Sterling claimed on NBC News’s “Meet the Press.” “I to be going with the Twitter feeding on it, and I observed it basically had actually the young man’s surname — it was a really unique name, therefore they tracked down his family and also started harassing them. And also it said, ‘His name, you have actually committed treason. Might God have mercy on her soul,’ through a gradually swinging noose. And also at that point, I just said, ‘I’m done.’ ”


Video: Ga. GOP main Sterling says Trump’s rhetoric is leading to violencechevron-right

Post reality Checker: A closer look at that misleading video Trump toutschevron-rightPost reality Checker: Trump’s pre-Thanksgiving call-in to a GOP rally of allies in Gettysburgchevron-rightRead: height Georgia republic rebuff Trump’s call for castle to organize a one-of-a-kind legislative conference to overturn electionchevron-rightRelated: The Republican secretary the state who won’t ago downchevron-rightRelated: Trump’s feud v Georgia Gov. Brian Kempchevron-right

Were thousands of ballots mishandled in Maricopa County?

Trump claim: The president has made a slew the false statements around Arizona’s choice processes. At a Dec. 6 rally in Georgia because that its two U.S. Senators, the said: “A sample of 100 ballots reviewed by a judge discovered that a very small percentage of these ballots — really small, yet when girlfriend look in ~ it, it was turned out to be an extremely large. The was 10s of thousands of votes, an ext than us would’ve necessary to success Arizona.”

In a 46-minute prerecorded video clip released on Dec. 2, the president said: “In Arizona, in-person voters whose ballots produced error message from tabulation makers were told to press a switch that brought about their votes no being counted. Also, in Arizona, the attorney general announced that mail-in ballots had actually been steal from mailboxes and hidden under a rock.”

A sue filed through Arizona’s Republican Party, the trump card campaign and also the Republican nationwide Committee alleged the “up come thousands” that ballots had actually been mishandled in Maricopa County, the state’s largest, and also would “prove determinative.” The suit completed that poll workers pressed or told voters to push a switch on a tabulating device to actors their ballots even after those tabulators flagged an obvious “overvote,” in which the maker believed a voter marked two candidates in the exact same race.

Fact: Biden won Arizona’s 11 electoral votes by about 10,000 votes. A referee dismissed the sue on Nov. 13, ~ Trump campaign attorney Kory Langhofer recognized that only about 190 ballots had actually overvotes in the presidential race on the count’s ballots.

On Nov. 19, another state judge dismissed a separate lawsuit, also filed by the Arizona GOP, that sought to have actually Maricopa ar redo a hand counting of the audit.

The state’s attorney general said his office investigated the unopened ballots, which to be delivered earlier to the ideal voters, and also found no wrongdoing.

The ar certified its vote on Nov. 20, and also Arizona Secretary that State Katie Hobbs, a Democrat, certified the state’s election results on Nov. 30. “This choice was conducted with transparency, accuracy and also fairness in accordance with Arizona’s laws and also election procedures,” said Hobbs, “despite countless unfounded claims to the contrary.”

The state’s Republican governor, Doug Ducey, likewise said the election was correctly run. “The pandemic and also covid-19 brought new unprecedented challenges for ours state. But as I stated before, we execute elections well below in Arizona,” that said. “The system is strong, and also that’s why I have bragged on that so much.”

Hours later, trump card lashed the end at Ducey for the certification.

Shortly after ~ the certification ceremony, Arizona Republican Party chairman Kelli Ward filed a official election dispute in Maricopa ar court. She inquiry the court come annul the election, claiming misconduct by choice officials and widespread errors that had resulted in Biden wrongly being named the winner of the state.

As component of the legitimate proceedings, Ward’s lawyers were permitted to check 1,626 damaged ballots that were “duplicated” — a procedure by which a bipartisan team of election workers determine the voter’s intent and also then fill the end a clean, machine-readable ballot. They uncovered a full of ripe errors that, had they no occurred, would have netted Trump 6 votes. Applying that error price to all copied ballots countywide would have netted Trump just 103 votes — no the thousands that Trump claimed.

A Maricopa County judge dismissed Ward’s lawsuit, detect no proof of fraud, misconduct or extensive errors that would certainly justify overturning the election. The Arizona can be fried Court affirmed his decision top top Dec. 8, gradually to satisfy the federal “safe harbor” deadline.

The “challenge stops working to present any kind of evidence of ‘misconduct,’ ‘illegal votes’ or the the Biden Electors ‘did not in truth receive the highest number of votes because that office,’ allow alone establish any kind of degree that fraud or a enough error rate that would weaken the certainty of the choice results,” chef Justice Robert Brutinel wrote.

Arizona supreme Court rejects difficulty from state Republican party


Related: The latest post reporting ~ above Trump’s legal effortschevron-right


Claim in court | MICHIGAN
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Was there any evidence of mishandled ballots, voter persuasion or poor observation of counting in Wayne County?

Claim: 2 GOP poll watchers competed in a lawsuit that some poll workers in heavily democratic Detroit coached voters to cast ballots for Biden and also that some Republican poll observers to be not offered an adequate possibility to monitor the vote count, one allegation Trump repetitive in remarks top top Nov. 5. They additionally contended that loads of ballots were improperly lugged into the city’s convention facility in the center of the night and asked the court to delay certification of the choice results.

Fact: Wayne ar Circuit Chief referee Timothy M. Kenny rejected the poll watchers’ suit. “It would certainly be an unprecedented exercise of judicial activism for this court to stop the certification process” that would certainly “undermine belief in the Electoral System,” he composed in a Nov. 13 ruling.

One the the affidavits submitted by Republican challengers was “rife through speculation and sinister motives.” an additional person that submitted an affidavit had posted on facebook that Democrats had planned to commit fraud, Kenny noted, creating that “his predilection to believe fraud was emerging undermines his credibility together a witness.”

Since election Day, four lawsuits have actually been filed challenging the outcomes in Michigan, three of which have focused almost exclusively top top Wayne County, Michigan’s most populated county and home to the state’s largest city. Biden won the Democratic-dominated ar by 37 points over Trump, or by a margin of virtually 323,000 votes. He won the state’s 16 electoral votes by a margin of practically 150,000 votes.

Lawyers for Detroit and also for the Michigan democratic Party had argued in court files that around 100 Republican poll challengers had, in fact, to be let into the convention center, but that part were not allowed to return ~ leaving once the room filled up and also exceeded its legitimate capacity.

“Every among these do the efforts is a blatant effort to weaken the voices of a bulk of Michigan voters,” Michigan Attorney basic Dana Nessel, a Democrat, claimed after the judge ruled. “No party or politician have the right to steal this election.”

On Nov. 16, Michigan’s Court of Appeals rejected a request to turning back Kenny’s ruling, permitting certification to continue as required by Nov. 17.

Earlier on Nov. 17, the Wayne County plank of Canvassers failed to certify its ballot count, deadlocking 2 come 2 follow me party lines. Then, in a dramatic reversal several hours later, castle struck a compromise and also sent the certified outcomes along come the state board, which is additionally composed of two Republicans and also two Democrats.

After that meeting, Trump called Monica Palmer, one of two Republican members the the board, she said The Washington article on Nov. 19. She has actually asked to “rescind” her poll to certify the results.

Trump also invited leader from Michigan’s Republican-controlled state legislature to fulfill with him in ~ the White House, whereby he request them come block certification that the state’s results. He has actually personally intervened v Republican leader in Georgia and Pennsylvania, calling to ask castle to turning back his election loss in your states.


Related: Trump phone call Pa. Residence leader, asks him to overturn Pa. Voters’ choicechevron-right

Related: Arizona branch silences Trump’s call, certifies electionchevron-rightRelated: Michigan lawmakers accomplish with president, certify vote anywaychevron-rightRelated: A look in ~ the affidavits from poll watchers. The obscure county plank at the center of U.S. Politics.chevron-rightRelated: The trumped campaign’s legit defeats in Pennsylvaniachevron-right

What taken place with the postal worker’s allegation that ballot tampering in Erie?

Trump claim: The president brought up again a baseless insurance claim that postal workers have actually tampered v ballots. In ~ his Dec. 5 rally in Georgia, Trump said whistleblowers in many states have testified come witnessing postal workers and also election employees illegally backdating thousands of ballots, solving ballots, filling out false birthdays, registering ineligible voters and also much more. Top top Nov. 11 and Nov. 15, trump tweeted about a Pennsylvania postal worker, Richard Hopkins, who alleged that two days ~ the election, the heard the Erie postmaster say come a supervisor that they had “messed up” by failing come backdate the postmark on ballots that arrived after election Day.

Reality: Hopkins admitted come U.S. Postal business investigators the his story was not true, and he signed one affidavit recanting the claim on Nov. 9, follow to three officials who were briefed on the investigation. He later recanted his recantation, and Project Veritas — the organization that originally aired Hopkins’s insurance claims — said he had actually been coerced through investigators into signing “a watered down statement drafted by them utilizing their words.” yet the videotaped interview mirrors that commonwealth agents continuously reminded Hopkins that his collaboration was voluntary, and that Hopkins repeatedly expressed remorse for signing an earlier affidavit attesting come the claims since it exaggeration what he witnessed. By then, the Trump campaign had cited Hopkins’s contentions in a lawsuit seeking to hold-up the certification of election results in Pennsylvania, part of a large effort to overturn Biden’s win.

Sen. Lindsey O. Graham (R-S.C.) additionally had quote Hopkins’s story the purported fraud in questioning the Justice room to investigate. Attorney general William P. Barr subsequently authorized federal prosecutors to open probes right into credible allegations of voting irregularities. The head that the justice Department’s choice Crimes Branch stepped under in protest, telling colleagues in an e-mail that Barr’s directive violated a long-standing department plan intended to protect against political interference in choice results.

Sixteen assistant U.S. Attorneys created a letter to Barr speak his authorization “thrusts job prosecutors into partisan politics.” The signers, who are all assigned to screen malfeasance in the 2020 election, wrote that they observed no proof of the sort of fraud Barr addressed.


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Other insurance claim | PENNSYLVANIA
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Did video capture a woman stuffing ballots in Philadelphia?

Trump claim: Trump, there is no evidence, has actually repeatedly pointed come “bad points happening in Philadelphia.” He elevated this in his very first debate v Biden, and in the days prior to the election and also in the month since, that has available various nonspecific versions virtually 100 times. “Philadelphia and also various areas around Philadelphia, lock cheat, and they cheat prefer crazy,” the told Fox’s Maria Bartiromo. “The mail-in ballots were — are a disaster. They sent out millions and millions and also millions of mail-in ballots …”

A video clip purports to display a woman putting at least three ballots into a ballot drop box on a Philadelphia street corner. Mike Roman, Trump’s project director of election Day operations, circulated the video clip with a tweet the said: “Literally STUFFING the ballot box in Philly! You space only allowed to supply YOUR very own ballot to a fall box!! Trying to STEAL THE election in broad daylight.”

Reality: there is no evidence that any kind of wrongdoing take it place. In an e-mail to The Post’s reality Checker column, Philadelphia ar Attorney’s Office spokeswoman woman Roh shown that her office had reviewed the video on choice Day.

“It is lawful for world to act as agents on behalf of voters who cannot engage in the procedure of voting for themselves — because of illness, infirmity, etc. It is likewise lawful come drop letter in a mailbox on behalf of other people,” she said.

“Nothing in that video clip is conclusive that wrongdoing,” she wrote, adding, “Social media accusations of election interference from the trumped campaign and also the philadelph GOP circulated due to the fact that , consisting of posts about this video, were never reported come authorities — which arguably raises questions around the actual will of this posts.”

The associated Press formerly reported that the Trump campaign filmed people in the Philadelphia area depositing ballots. The project said the was an attempt to record violations, when the state’s lawyer general said it can be illegal intimidation.


Related: Fact-checking other viral videos complete of misinformationchevron-right


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Did mail-in voting produce an opportunity for widespread fraud?

Trump claim: In a decided Dec. 2, trumped laid out “the corruption mail-in balloting system that democrats systematically put into place that enabled voting to be altered, particularly in waver states, i m sorry they had actually to win.” that repeated cases that he’s made across the choice cycle the mail-in ballots were “sent to unknown recipients with virtually no safeguards of any kind fraud and abuse to happen on a scale never seen before.”

Reality: there is no proof that mail-in voting leader to prevalent voter fraud. An analysis by The article found just 372 cases of potential fraud out of about 14.6 million ballots cast by letter in 2016 and 2018.

Historically, mail-in voting has not favored either political party. However, Trump’s continual attacks on mail-in ballots did make Republicans wary that absentee voting.

Election security regulations vary by state, yet numerous safeguards for mail-in voting exist in every state.

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About this story

Contributors come this report incorporate Emma Brown, Anna Brugmann, buy it Cahlan, David A. Fahrenthold, Amy Gardner, Tom Hamburger, Abigail Hauslohner, Rosalind S. Helderman, Meg Kelly, valley Kessler, Hannah Knowles, Michelle Ye Hee Lee, Keith Newell, Tyler Remmel, Aaron Schaffer, Jon Swaine, Reis Thebault and also Elise Viebeck. Mail-in voting graphics by Kate Rabinowitz. Style and breakthrough by Jake Crump.


Ann Gerhart, an elderly editor in ~ large, collaborates with journalists in video, photography and also graphics to produce digital enterprise and to create brand-new story forms. She joined The Washington write-up in 1995 and also has to be a writer and also editor in Style, National and Outlook, v a focus on politics.